The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse and summarise three selected papers which focus on a structured question, linked to a relevant issue with in my nursing programme. The specific question in focus is “what are the experiences of parents/guardians caring for a child with autism”. Within this essay there will be a description as to how and why the pacific question was chosen. There will also be an explanation of how the correct research papers where allocated. Further on in the essay the three chosen papers will be analysed to determine their trustworthiness. When formulating a question there are two frameworks that can be used these are known as “PICO” and “PIO” these terms will also be discussed in further detail within the essay.
The main reason for research to be evaluated and critiqued is due to evidence based practice. Evidence based practice is a method of problem solving, which includes identifying the clinical problem, searching literature, evaluating the research evidence and then deciding on the interventions (White 1997). The Department of Health (1997) emphasises the importance of using evidence based practice in all nursing situations to assist nurses in providing the best possible care available. Nursing care involves a wide range of interventions and therefore draws on a diverse evidence base of knowledge and research (Pearson et al 2002). When providing evidence in practice it is important to ensure that records are accurately maintained in order for the evidence to be reliable.
When carrying out Evidence Based Practice it is important to start off with a clear aim or outcome that needs to be achieved. In this case a specific question is the focus of the research in the hope of locating articles which answer the question. Therefore in relation to the question the articles will show parents experiences of caring for a child with autism, while comparing the different experiences parents encounter.
As professionals the need to question nursing practice is inevitable, Lydeard (1991, P122) suggests that questions are at the heart of all research and the nature and quality of the evidence depends largely on how the question is asked. Before any research could be undertaken the focus question had to be interlinked with one of two frameworks which are known as “PICO” and “PIO”. The “PICO” framework incorporates the Population or Problem, the Intervention or Issue, Comparison and Outcome. The PICO framework provides a mechanism for the efficient implementation of a vast range of parallel computing platforms (Butnariu, Censor & Reich 2001 P219). The PIO framework is more about perspectives it has the same meanings except there is no Comparison, depending on the type of research being carried out, PIO can sometimes be more specific as comparisons can complicate the search term. In relation to the focused question the PIO framework has been used as the purpose of the question was to gain knowledge on personal experiences. The population within the focused question is parents/guardians, the issue autism and the outcome is their experiences.
This topic is important to consider as many parents according to (The National Autistic Society 2012) experience feelings of being isolated because of what they perceived was a lack, of understanding by society of what autism was and what was involved in caring for a child with autism. Autism spector disorder (ADS) is an umbrella term that refers to a condition that shares the same common characteristics. Caring for a child with autism can present a parent or guardian with a number of challenges; it can also put considerable pressure on other siblings. Autism is an unseen disability, which means that outside the home parents may have to deal with disapproval from people who don’t understand the situation, because autism is a spectrum disorder, parents experiences will vary enormously (NHS Caring for Someone with Autism 2012)....
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