Western Governor’s University
Evidence-Based Practice and Applied Nursing Research
Sayre, M.M., McNeese-Smith, D., Leach, L.S., & Phillips, L.R. (2012). An educational intervention to increase “speaking-up” behaviors in nurses and improve patient safety. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 27(2), 154-160. AREA|METHOD OF REPORT (HOW IT WAS ADDRESSED)|
1.Background information2.Review of the literature3.Discussion of methodology4.Specific data analysis5.Conclusion |ØAddressed by defining “speaking-up,” with information regarding recent studies made concerning the issueØAddressed by revealing the impact and danger of organizational silence to change and development; mentioned recent studies which proved the negative effects of not speaking-up and how it can be solvedØAddressed by revealing the design and the sample, which is to follow a quasi-experimental design; mentioned the use of intervention and instruments that are to be used ØAddressed by revealing the process, such as obtaining informed consent from the participants from May until November 2009; data was analyzed with the use of the Stata 8 statistical software programØAddressed by instigating that encouraging and supporting speaking-up behaviors in nurses enhances patient safety in organizations|
Based on the analysis of the five areas of the study, it appears that the evidences that were presented in the research report do support the conclusion. In conducting the study, the researchers used three questionnaires that gathered information on a 5-point continuum, measuring the speaking-up process and listing nurse behaviors prevalent in the case. The multifaceted educational training intervention was conducted in which it revealed that the posttest scores after the intervention improved considerably afterwards. With this, it proves that educational intervention focused on speaking-up behaviors can increase the ability to speak up, which would then improve patient safety in the hospital environment.
While conducting the research for the article, there may have been ethical issues that the researcher faced, such as the beliefs of the nurses and their culture, which may have affected their behavior on not speaking up when encountering difficult situations. They may have personally disagreed that it was the fault of the nurses if they do not speak-up given a certain case, and that it is not their responsibility to report the case. More so, there is a form of bias in the study concerning nurses who do not speak-up or report the case. The research tend to bend towards the negativity of not reporting, making the study ethically bended towards nurses who speak-up, making the study relentlessly one-sided and narrow. On the other hand, ethical issues may also include the “failure to report colleague misconduct as a serious problem” (Bettinardi-Angres & Bologeorges, 2011, p.11) on the belief that others were taking care of the problem. There are those who fear repercussion or retaliation, as well as fear of lack of administrative support. The consequences of not reporting may have also affected the nurses, causing them to impede in speaking up when confronted with a difficult case in the hospital.
The research was done using both the quantitative and qualitative method, which made the study more flexible and accurate. The quantitative method was used in rating the answers to the three questionnaires that were used, wherein the five items were measured and rated on a 5-point continuum using regression analysis on the data. On the other hand, the qualitative method was used in analyzing the behavior of the nurses given a specific case, revealing actions or behaviors that the nurses would do given a specific circumstance. Both methods have been appropriate for the study, making it more well-rounded and precise. On the other hand, the...