Mark Joseph A. Euste*, Grainor M. Palaroan, Amante T. Ama
Camarines Sur National High School
Engineering and Science Education Project
Peñafrancia Ave., Naga City
*Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Energy drinks are beverages which contain chemical constituents that are said to improve physical and mental performance. Most of them primarily contain varying amounts of caffeine, guarana, ginseng and taurine. This study aims to provide a critical review regarding the adverse effects of excessive daily intake of energy drinks. Five commercially available energy drinks were used as the subject of the study. The average consumption of a certain component was compared to the serving size included in each product. It was found out that the consumption of the ingredients more than the recommended amounts per day may cause physiological side effects. There is no medical use for energy drinks, however several ingredients in some of these drinks have been found to be helpful in the medical perspective.
Keyword(s): energy drinks
In the past decades, the beverage industry paved the way to the rise of caffeinated energy drinks in the market. Back in early 1960s, it first appeared in Europe and Asia in response to the consumers’ demand for a dietary supplement that would result in increased energy (Reissig et al., 2009). Basically, energy drinks refer to beverages that contain mainly caffeine, alongside other active constituents which includes varying amounts of guarana extract, taurine, vitamins, amino acids and herbal extracts. These purportedly provide benefits such as increased mental alertness, physical endurance, performance and stamina (Simon and Mosher, 2007; Babu et al., 2008). Conversely, there is inadequate evidence that consumption of energy drinks can significantly improve both physical and mental performance (Scholey and Kennedy, 2004). The wide availability and distribution of energy drinks makes them readily accessible for purchase by adolescents. Market surveys indicate that 31% of those aged 12 to 17 are regular consumers of energy drinks, as are 34% of aged 18 to 24 (Simon and Mosher, 2007). Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of the ingredients present in energy drinks on children and adolescents. This study was conducted due to the core objective of making the public aware of the adverse effects of energy drinks, especially to children. Adverse reactions and toxicity from high-energy drinks mainly root from their caffeine content (Reissig et al., 2009). The fatal dose of pure caffeine in adults is 5 to 10 grams when taken orally and 3.5 grams by injection. In children, the fatal dose is much lower (Health Canada, 2000). Children who consume too much caffeine are at higher risk for behavioral effects, such as anxiety, mood changes and loss of attentiveness. A daily intake of less than 45 to 85 mg is recommended, depending on the child’s health condition (Health Canada, 2003). Based on a survey, it was found out that 42.3% of the youth (ages 11 to 18) consumes energy drinks (O’Dea, 2003). At risk children having excessive daily intake of caffeine should be limited to no more than 2.5 mg caffeine/kg body weight, and may need to avoid consuming energy beverages with higher caffeine content. Adolescents should limit caffeine consumption as well as intakes greater than 100 mg/day for reports says that it has been directly correlated with an increase in blood pressure (Savoca et al., 2004).
2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Research Design
The research is focused on the components of energy drinks where five products were sampled namely Product A, B, C, D, and E. The researchers acquired a sample of each product.
2.2 Sampling and Acquisition of Samples
Products A, B, C, D, and E were randomly sampled. Fish bowl sampling was used where the names of these products were written on a piece of paper. Out of 7, 5 products of...