Evaluating Mental Retardation
The history of mental retardation originated during the era of therapeutic papyri of Thebes, Egypt (Biasini, Bray, Grupe, & Huffman). Although the concept was unclear, because of complications in translation, these documents evidently refer to psychological and biological disabilities due to damages of the brain (Biasini). Those assumed to posses these developmental disabilities were habitually victims of infanticide and homicide. The se outcasts were often sold into slavery, used as entertainment and amusement, neglected, and even thrown off cliffs to their deaths. (Biasini). Christianity and other religious movements led to the decline in these brutal practices. Jesus, Mohammed, Buddha, Confucius were early spiritual leaders and promoters of humane treatment for the mentally retarded and developmentally disabled. A physician, Jean –Marc-Gaspard Itard, revolutionized the treatment and care of the mentally retarded, advocating an educational approach. John Locke profoundly influenced the care and training supplied to individuals with mental retardation. This advancement became known as the psychological method. Seguin also founded the American Association of Mental Retardation and several of his practices have been adapted for utilization I the present day (Biasini). Binet developed the test of intelligence. Edgar Doll developed the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. This assessment device evaluated the adaptive behaviors of individuals suspected of having mental retardation. This assessment device evaluated the adaptive behaviors of individuals suspected of having mental retardation. These assessment tool s provided psychologists with appropriate resources for diagnosing individuals. They also allowed the to administer the apposite care in residential training schools (Biasini). Over the years, several laws have been proposed, passed, and amended in efforts to promote humanitarian services and inequality for the mentally disabled....
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