Evaluate methods used by the psychodynamic approach.
One of the methods used by the psychodynamic approach is case studies. Case studies are used to practice their therapy on to see if it actually works. The therapy created by Sigmund Freud, is called psychoanalysis. An example of one of the case studies would be the case study of Little Hans. Hans was at the age where he noticed he had a penis and therefore played with it a lot. His mother noticed this and told him to stop it otherwise she would call the doctor and get him to cut it off. Hans later on developed a phobia of horses, so his father got in touch with Freud and told him about Hans’ strange behaviour and he suggested that he was scared of horses because of the large penis. Later on, Freud and Hans’ father discovered that he had a phobia of horses because he saw his father as a rival and he apparently had a large penis. He saw his father as a rival because he acquired the Oedipus complex which meant that he had a sexual desire for his mother and therefore wanted to get rid of the father. Freud interpreted that the horses in the phobia were symbolic of the father, and that Hans feared that the horse (father) would bite (castrate) him as punishment for the incestuous desires towards his mother. With Hans feeling threatened by his dad, Freud thinks that he comes up with a defence mechanism known as 'identification with the aggressor'. This is where Hans would bond with his father by adopting his mannerisms and actions, this way; he will not feel hostile towards him. Weeks after, Hans’ phobia improved and at the end of the phobia he had two fantasies. One of them being that his father was the granddad not the dad. And the other about his bottom and penis being removes then being replaces with larger ones. After recovering from the phobia, Hans’ father reassured Hans that he had no intention of cutting his penis off. One weakness of the case study...