An ecosystem is defined as a group of organisms and their biophysical environment interact and exchange matter and energy, collectively, they form an ecological system. By identifying the characteristic patters of interaction it is possible to distinguish different types of ecosystem. Many forms and features have been accountable for the destruction of different ecosystems. This has been achieved within the atmosphere-varies in temperature, amount of rainfall; the hydrosphere-closely linked with atmosphere, the atmosphere determines the nature of the water cycle in a particular area; the lithosphere-determines the nature of soils and provides habitats for many of the decomposer organisms; and the biosphere-where all living life exists, can be affected by carbon emissions and other chemical factors. With these factors contributing to ecosystem variations, practical management strategies must be utilised. The main factors that need to be protected within an ecosystem range from utility value, maintenance of genetic diversity, intrinsic value, and heritage value.
Economists consider all living and non living components of the earth’s ecosphere as having an existing or potential utility value. By maintaining and protecting ecosystem, we are maximising our race’s ability to adapt to change. The enormous diversity of life represents a huge date base of genetic material can be tapped into as human needs change. the loss of a species; plant, fungus, bacterium or virus denies us a of potential future source of food, medicine, chemicals, fibres and other such materials.
Human survival depends upon a few species, mainly a few grains such as wheat, rice. Despite genetic engineering, plant breeders still rely upon selective breeding to develop varieties of these crop plants that are able to withstand climate change, salinity, disease and insect attack. Such crops are located in their native environments which are at risk In the developing world, for example, rice is derived from China. Due to the excessive exhaustion of the many genetic variations, plant breeders still need to turn back to their genetic source replenish their genetic material, consequently, they are adding more genetic variations to a particular strain of crop, making it more resilient to environmental changes. Management is very important because exploiting the utility value of ecosystems, if taken to the extreme, will ultimately destroy the environment. Proper management techniques are needed to minimise the risk of environmental degradation
Immense maintenance must be undergone to protect our future ecosystems evident within our environments. Vital to such a reassessment will be the need to adopt values, attitudes and practices that conform to the idea of sustainable development.
Characteristically, ecosystems that are rich in biodiversity have a greater resilience and as a result, are able to recover from natural and human induced stress. Diversity allows a species to adapt to changes within its environment. The more successful a species is at adaption, the less vulnerable it it.
Communities of plants and animals tend to survive periods of stress because within the ecosystem, there are organisms not adversely affected by the change. The organisms that are most likely to survive are the ones that have certain characteristics that allow them to survive. The loss of genetic diversity that is caused by human intervention has to be considered as an opportunity cost of an ever expanding technosphere.
The loss of an ecosystem will ultimately destroy a vital part of our environmental basis for potential sustainability in which we can learn or benefit from, through medicines and food and general ecological diversity, which means we have to maintain our natural ecosystems.
Within the biophysical environment every component is reliant upon one...