An ecosystem is defined as a group of organisms and their biophysical environment interact and exchange matter and energy, collectively, they form an ecological system. By identifying the characteristic patters of interaction it is possible to distinguish different types of ecosystem. Many forms and features have been accountable for the destruction of different ecosystems. This has been achieved within the atmosphere-varies in temperature, amount of rainfall; the hydrosphere-closely linked with atmosphere, the atmosphere determines the nature of the water cycle in a particular area; the lithosphere-determines the nature of soils and provides habitats for many of the decomposer organisms; and the biosphere-where all living life exists, can be affected by carbon emissions and other chemical factors. With these factors contributing to ecosystem variations, practical management strategies must be utilised. The main factors that need to be protected within an ecosystem range from utility value, maintenance of genetic diversity, intrinsic value, and heritage value.
Economists consider all living and non living components of the earth’s ecosphere as having an existing or potential utility value. By maintaining and protecting ecosystem, we are maximising our race’s ability to adapt to change. The enormous diversity of life represents a huge date base of genetic material can be tapped into as human needs change. the loss of a species; plant, fungus, bacterium or virus denies us a of potential future source of food, medicine, chemicals, fibres and other such materials.
Human survival depends upon a few species, mainly a few grains such as wheat, rice. Despite genetic engineering, plant breeders still rely upon selective breeding to develop varieties of these crop plants that are able to withstand climate change, salinity, disease and insect attack. Such crops are located in their native...