AP European Summer Work
Chapter 9: The flowering of Medieval Civilizations
Cultural Developments: in the 12th and early 13th century, education was revolutionized, the Bureaucratization of monarchies was introduced, the commercial transactions in cities, and the development of church and civil law as society became wealthier and more expansive. The Rise of Universities: In the high middle ages, universities revolutionized the world. Monastic Schools; monastic schools were found favorable up to 1050 but then became less favorable due to the isolation, this made the exchange of ideas difficult. Cathedral Schools: Cathedral schools were one of the best learning institutions due to their very fluid structure, but caused riots because the townspeople found the students to be boisterous and because of their clerical status. Universities: Universities reformed in favor to the students. Italian Universities: Universities in Italy were more advanced and students were older and more mature. The University of Paris: The University of Paris provided meals, housing, and libraries which is the model for colleges today, it also offered higher degrees in theology, law, and medicine which took many years to complete. Scholasticism: Scholasticism was both a way to reason and a body of writings which appealed to cathedral schools in the late twelfth century. Anselm of Canterbury: Anselm believed that God was a perfect being and proof that he exists. Abelard: Abelard was a scholar meant to be in warfare but turned to his studies instead, he conceived a child with a woman he tutored. After the child was born, he proposed 150 questions and marshaled authorities from the bible and was forced to burn his works and give in to the church. Reception of Aristotle: The works of Aristotle drove many scholars to delve deeper into Aristotle’s logic. Thomas Aquinas: Aquinas was a brilliant scholar who wrote many books explaining the existence of God but showed characteristic weaknesses of scholasticism, but later thinkers found his works too elaborate. Duns Scotus: Scotus believed that God was a being that had to be accepted in life, not something that had to be showed. Spiritual Approaches to Knowledge: Many people believed that religion was not the best way to learn knowledge; instead they believed that humans should focus on the worship of Mary. Worship of Mary: In religion, Mary added the human side to religion not just the belief of a higher being. Cistercians and St. Bernard: The Cistercians avoided the large church orders in order to have complete emotional devotion to the humility of Christ and Mary. Women’s Spirituality: Women couldn’t join universities so their studies had to be acquired from being a nun or court; some women were praised for their piety or mystical visions which made them important in society. Romanesque Architecture: Major developments were introduced in architecture, sculpture, painting, and illustration and churches began to take on the gothic style. The Romanesque Style: Roman style architecture greatly influenced the construction of roman-like buildings with heavy stone roofs, thick walls and small windows. Romanesque Decoration: Romans influenced the style and decoration of buildings by adding antirealism to statues such as making Christ bigger than everything else. Other characteristics of Romanesque style: Romanesque style influenced the creation of elaborate castles but kept art church based. The Gothic style: People trying to show that the universe is reflective of all truth. Gothic Architecture: Gothic architecture was different because it was more barbaric than other styles; examples of this include being pointed instead of arched, ribbed vaulting, and higher are lighter walls. Stained glass and cheerful statues were also introduced. Gothic spirit: The Goths were interested in building such enormous cathedrals that many of them were not even completed. The Gothic style was to let as much light into the...
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