Mariaclara Ingrid Ludovici
EU relations with the world
Nowadays, the EU has adopted a foreign policy that has been modified and improved over time thanks to a series of treaties. It has been introduced to maintain EU values, interests, independence, and integrity of the Union. EU foreign and security policy has the aim of strengthening the Union’s security by keeping peace and promoting cooperation, democracy, the rule of law, and respect for human rights. It is connected with four main aspects: trade, foreign direct investment, development, and monetary policy. Other fundamental factors related to it are the increasing process of enlargement and cooperation, and international relations. Those elements have been introduced to built relations not only with countries close to the EU, but also with those far away. A great tool of European
Foreign Policy is also its system of justice and home affairs established to bring peace, and create economic interdependence among European countries. Between the main goals of the European Union, one of those could be to extend frameworks between all the partner states regardless of their diversity. Moreover, the EU has the purpose of improving relationships with other countries, such as Turkey, Russia and China with whom it has an ambivalent rapport. Therefore, this paper is going to explain and discuss the basics, tendencies, approaches and possible future roles of EU foreign policy. EU foreign and security policy has been created together with its growing economic and political policy. The first forms of regular meetings aimed at coordinating the European foreign policy arose during the 1970s between EU ministers of foreign affairs. Later, due to an increasing threat of international terrorism and regional conflicts in Europe during the 1990s, EU leaders decided to create a formal method for diplomacy and intervention. As a result, in 1993 they established the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). It has been designed to allow Member States to coordinate and assert the EU’s identity, and to preserve values, interests, independence, international security and integrity of the Union. Furthermore, it has been created to consolidate international cooperation, develop the rule of law and democracy, and to promote respect for human rights. All of the EU’s major institutions are essential for EU foreign policy, and CFSP decision-making procedures are intergovernmental. The European Council is in charge for foreign policy, defining policy principles, activities, strategies, and general guidelines (A Guide for Americans, 26-27). In addition, in 1999, European leaders decided to establish a EU Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) considered as a part of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy. It occurred because there was the need to improve and strengthen security and operations related to it, such as peacekeeping, monitoring, and conflict prevention. Under the ESDP structure, EU member states has been able to organize and send civilian and/or military operations in many countries, for example in Southeast Europe, the Middle East, Africa, South Asia, Georgia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (A Guide for Americans, 26-27). In order to reach a great success and expansion of the ESDP, in 2009, substantial innovations thanks to the Treaty of Lisbon were introduced: the ESDP became the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP). The Treaty of Lisbon was organized to introduce the concept of solidarity and mutual assistance between all EU Member States if another Member State was attacked. In addition, other two measures were introduced within the Lisbon Treaty: “enhanced cooperation,” and “permanent structured cooperation” (A Guide for Americans, 26). The first one was addressed to deepen military cooperation of at least nine member states. The second one, controlled by the European Defense Agency, was aimed at providing a strong defense system, which every country could...
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