The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine canard-delta wing multirole aircraft. It is being designed and built by a consortium of three companies: Alenia Aeronautica, BAE Systems, and EADS . DEVELOPMENT
1971 - UK requirement for a new fighter - resulted in a conventional "tailed" design known as P.96;
1979 - West German requirement for a new fighter - had led to the development of the TKF-90 concept;
1979 British Aerospace and Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm presented a formal proposal to their respective governments for the ECF, the European Collaborative Fighter or European Combat Fighter;
October 1979 a French aircraft manufacturer joined the team for a tri-national study - European Combat Aircraft.
1983 - the UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain launched the Future European Fighter Aircraft (FEFA) programme:
- the aircraft was to have Short Take Off and Landing (STOL) and Beyond Visual Range (BVR) capabilities; 1984 - France officially withdrew from the project to pursue its own ACX project, which was to become the Dassault Rafale . Italy, West Germany , UK and Spain – continued the Eurofighter project with the share of the production work divided in proportion to their projected procurement : - British Aerospace (33%)
- DASA (33%)
- Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) (13%).
Testing - the maiden flight of the Eurofighter prototype took place on 27 March 1994 around Bavaria.
- The first production contract was signed on 30 January 1998: • UK - 40 aircrafts
• Germany - 31 aircrafts
• Italy - 21 aircrafts
• Spain - 20 aircrafts
Costs - Unit cost €63 million (flyaway cost, estimated).
Standard unit flyaway cost elements include the costs of procuring airframes; engines; avionics; armaments;engineering change orders; nonrecurring costs including production tooling, software, and other costs (if funded from aircraft procurement appropriations); divided by the procurement quantity. Flyaway cost does not include research and development, support equipment, training equipment, technical data, or spares.
Airframe and avionics
The Typhoon features lightweight construction (82% composites- consisting of 70% carbon fibre composites and 12% glass reinforced composites)with an estimated lifespan of 6000 flying hours. The fighter achieves high agility at both supersonic and low speeds by having a relaxed stability design. It has a quadruplex digital fly-by-wire control system providing artificial stability, as manual operation alone could not compensate for the inherent instability. The fly-by-wire system is described as "carefree" by preventing the pilot from exceeding the permitted manoeuvre envelope. Navigation is via both GPS and an inertial navigation system. The Typhoon can use Instrument Landing System (ILS) for landing in poor weather. Praetorian monitors and responds automatically to the outside world. It provides the pilot with an all-round prioritised assessment of Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface threats. It can respond to single or multiple threats. Protection is provided by Chaff, Jaff and Flares, Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) and a Towed Radar Decoy (TRD). Ground Proximity Warning System –is a terrain awareness warning system. Link 16 - is a type of military tactical data exchange network used by NATO
Cockpit - "glass cockpit" without any conventional instrument; - DVI system - Speech Recognition Module; Direct Voice Input (DVI) - is a style of Human-Machine Interaction "HMI" in which the user makes voice commands to issue instructions to the machine. Eurofighter, the F-35 Lightning II, the Rafale and the JAS 39 Gripen. DVI systems may be "user-dependent" or "user-independent".
User-dependent - systems require a personal voice template to be created by the pilot which...