* Victor Emmanuel II (VERDI): First King of United Italy, King of Italia * Cavour: Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia from 1852 until his death, had a realpolitiker’s vision, promoted economic development, to unify Italy he had to confront Austria so he got help from Napoleon who feared growth of Piedmont and gave them Lombardy but not Venetia to Piedmont and left the rest of Italy disunited, helped achieve a strong economy, modern army, liberal political climate provoked Austria to invade Northern Italy
* Garribaldi: a committed republican, dedicated guerilla fighter, set sail from Genoa with a thousand red shirted volunteers to liberate Sicily, where peasants were rebelling against their landlords and the corrupt gov. in anticipation of Risorgimento. Victor’s victorious forces and Garilbaldi’s met in Naples. Garibaldi threw his support to the king. In 1861 the kingdom of Italy had Victor as their head. Originally wanted to liberate sicily * Piedmont Sardinia:
* Role of Napoleon:
* France promises to help out Italy with the war against Austria, but switches sids in the middle and makes a treaty with Austria * gave Lombardy to Piedmont, but not Venetia, took Rome for France * left Italy disunited
* Role of Francis Joseph: Austrian Emperor who signed peace treaty with Napolean 2nd French Empire
* Napoleon III: called himself “A man of Destiny”, modernizer, promoted strong economy -conservative control with democratic reforms
-wanted to economically modernize and reform France
-disrupted the concert of Europe by establishing French domination * Italian Unification: napoleon pitted France against Austria * Crimean War: started with conflict between Russian and Ottoman empires. Russia had been expanding into Asia and the Middle East. Tsar Nicholas I wanted to absorb much of the Ottoman Empire so Napoleon encouraged him to be more aggressive in his expansion which provoked a war...