in the Lecture “European Foreign Policy”
at École de Management Strasbourg
Valentin Fercho, Kevin Cross, Ovcharova Yana, Azat Kamagazynov
2. EU-Russia Relations3
2.1 Determinants of the EU-Russia Relations3
2.1.1 Political determinants3
2.1.2 Economic determinants5
2.2 Implications for future EU-Russia relations and the EU's Foreign Policy6
The relations between the European Union (EU) and the Russian Federation have seen some turbulent times during the last years, ranging from the Russia–Georgia war in 2008 to the Russia–Ukraine gas dispute which also affected some EU countries. This paper will briefly present the current state of EU-Russia relations, analyze the respective political and economic determinants of the bilateral relations and assess their impact on future EU-Russia relations and the EU's Foreign Policy.
2. EU-Russia Relations
2.1 Determinants of the EU-Russia Relations
2.1.1 Political determinants
In the past, political relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation have been, for a lack of better words, tense. Albeit this fact, the political relations between the two have considerably increased since the true acknowledgement of the European Union in 1993 (but the origin of the European Union can be dated back as far as 1945 when the European Coal and Steel Industries first started to peacefully congregate between France, Germany, Luxembourg, Italy, Belgium, and The Netherlands). Additionally, when the Soviet Union disbanded and became Russia in the early 1990’s, political unrest seemed to disband as well, and public relations with other countries improved drastically. European Union and the Russian Federations relations slowly kept building and improving until the European Union started inducting many Eastern European countries which had previously been considered as Russian Satellites and where there had initially been rested an uneasy aura between the two sides of Europe. Despite all of these previous notions between the two sides of Europe, in 2004, the European Union created the European Neighborhood Policy which attempted to create an equal agreement between Russia, the Satellites, and Western Europe. Despite the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP), Russia did not accept this, but did acknowledge that the EU is indeed a world power, and recognized equality with the EU. To provide supplementary reasons of ease between the EU and Russia, the Four Common Spaces were created at a meeting between delegates of the EU and Russia in 2003 called St. Petersburg Summit. The first common space is “The Common Economic Space” which focuses on Environment, Transportation, and Energy concerns between the two parties. This common space does aid in the betterment of legislation between the two world powers, but the main focus of this common space is for the energy. Russia is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of natural gas, along with Saudi Arabia. Russia contains over twenty percent of the world’s known gas reserves, which is ideal for the EU because this can bring the EU and Russia together. This common space can create a stable relationship between the EU, who needs the energy, and Russia, who needs the economic benefit of exporting their natural gas. Secondly, there is “The Common Space of Freedom, Security, and Justice”. This common space attempts to regulate and create standards for issues such as illegal immigration/migration, democracy, and most importantly, fundamental human rights. The Common Space of Freedom, Security, and Justice continues to fight for the basic rights of humans concerned in Chechnya and the rest of the North Caucasus due to problems of torture, and ill treatment of humans. To continue the desire to fight for these basic human rights, the EU has created the...