Ethology

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Ethology....

Ethology (from Greek: ethos meaning "character"; and logia, meaning "the study of") is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour. 
The focus of ethology is on animal behaviour under natural conditions, as opposed to behaviourism, which focuses on behavioural response studies in a laboratory setting.
 In the study of aggression by ethologists, as it relates to the interaction and evolution of animals in natural settings. In such studies , it revealed that aggression can involve bodily contact such as biting, hitting or pushing, but most
conflicts are settled by threat displays and intimidating thrusts that cause no physical harm. Ethologist believe that aggression confers biological 
advantages. Such advantages are securing animal territory, securing mating opportunities, protecting oneself or offsprings.
 Aggression between species and groups....

Aggression occurs between species and groups and they are often caused by number of reasons.
The more aggessive animals become the more dominant in a group setting.
Aggression has been defined from this viewpoint as "behavior which is intended
to increase the social dominance of the organism relative to the dominance position of other organisms".
 Losing confrontations may be called social defeat, and winning or losing is associated with a range of practical and psychological consequences.


Conflicts between animals occur in many contexts, such as between
potential mating partners, between parents and offspring, and
between competitors for resources. Group-living animals may dispute
over the direction of travel or the allocation of time to joint activities. Various factors limit the escalation of aggression, including
communicative displays, conventions and routines. 

Among species, such as predators and preys , they exhibit somlevel of aggression on both ends.

A predator may exhibit predatory aggression when pursuing a...
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