A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns, wherein representatives are chosen or referendums are decided. In modern politics, the most high profile political campaigns are focused on candidates for head of state or head of government, often a President or Prime Minister. Political campaigns have existed as long as there have been informed citizens to campaign amongst. Often mass campaigns are started by the less privileged or anti-establishment viewpoints (as against more powerful interests whose first resort is lobbying). The phenomenons of political campaigns are tightly tied to lobby groups and political parties. The first 'modern' campaign is thought to be William Ewart Gladstone's Midlothian campaign in the 1880s, although there may be earlier recognizably modern examples from the 19th century. Democratic societies have regular election campaigns, but political campaigning can occur on particular issues even in non-democracies so long as freedom of expression is allowed. American election campaigns in the 19th century created the first mass-base political parties and invented many of the techniques of mass campaigning In the 1790-1820s, the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party battled it out in the so-called "First Party System".
Running a political campaign is one of the most challenging and exhausting activities possible. Running a typical campaign will mean 12+ hour long work days for several months. On Election Day, either you win, or you and your entire campaign team are fired. As you approach the final days of the campaign, this creates a huge amount of stress and pressure for success. While nothing can eliminate the stress of the countdown to Election Day, the proper organization of a political campaign can avoid some unnecessary challenges. For my ethnography I decided to look into what’s required for an unsuccessful campaign. Methodology
My study took place in the south west corner of the lone star state. I went in daily and observed Sean Heath (all names of people and places in this paper are fictitious) who was running for precinct 2006 constable. Constables are a law enforcement agency that deals with the following: court issued documents (such as: citations, eviction notices, subpoenas, and temporary restraining orders), justice of the peace courts, truancy court, traffic violations, cluster court/ Texas department of family protective services, warrants, and juvenile justice alternative education programs. The constable’s position involves: working with the community, making a difference to people’s lives by providing a professional service, which is fast paced, dynamic involving shift working and serving anywhere within this force. Constables are usually police officers who’ve been in the field for a long period of time and have become sheriffs if not higher. During a formal sit down interview with Sean Heath was asked what his idea of a good relationship between the police and citizens were. Heath answered, “There has been a tremendous effort by the department to establish and maintain a better relationship between the public and the police. But because of the aforementioned faults in the police service, this has been extremely difficult. For example, during the Kandy Pageant, the police were trying hard to control the crowds and provide protection to the public in a professional manner. But the public image of the police is so bad, that the people are reluctant to follow the orders of the police. At the same time, the tendency towards crime in Sri Lankan society is increasing. But members of the public rarely come forward to give evidence or assist the police in combating crime. This shows that the relationship between the people and the police is very bad. I believe that if there was a good relationship between the...
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