Ethnicity of Nepal

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Ethnic Federalism in Nepal
A Remedy for a Stagnating Peace Process or
an Obstacle to Peace and Stability?
Adam Bergman
Spring 2011
Minor Field Study Report
Department of Peace and Conflict Research
Uppsala University
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 4 FEDERALISM AND ETHNIC CONFLICT IN THEORY..........................................................6 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH.......................................................................................... 8 Limitations........................................................................................................................... 8 FEDERALISM – THE NEPALI WAY......................................................................................10 The Nature of Federalism.................................................................................................... 11 Opposition to the Idea of Ethnic Federalism..................................................................... 14 ANALYSIS: ETHNIC FEDERALISM AND PROSPECTS FOR PEACE.................................16 Inductive Analysis............................................................................................................... 16 Political Implications...................................................................................................... 16 Ethnic Implications.........................................................................................................17 International and Regional Dimensions........................................................................ 19 Gender Dimensions........................................................................................................20 Deductive Analysis.............................................................................................................. 21 Fiscal Decentralization...................................................................................................22 Large National Parties....................................................................................................23 Interregional Inequalities...............................................................................................24 Fiscal Transfers...............................................................................................................24 CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................................................26 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................28 Interviews...........................................................................................................................28 Secondary Sources.............................................................................................................. 29 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was made possible by a Minor Field Study grant from the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida), administered by the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University. I would therefore like to thank both Sida and the Department of Peace and Conflict Research for providing me with this unique opportunity. I also wish to extend my gratitude to Fatik Thapa, whose discussions on the topic served to illuminate the complexity of the Nepali context and whose compassion and willingness to help facilitated many key interview meetings. This gratitude is also due Duane Jones, who provided crucial background information and direction to this study in an early and very confused state.

A special thank you to the Bhandari family, who took me in like a son. Their incredible hospitality and generosity surpassed any expectations, and they gave me...
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