The effect modernization has had on ethnic identification and ethnic conflict is not a great one. Early modernization theorists, who were quite optimistic about the positive effects of literacy, urbanization, and modern values, clearly underestimated the extent to which these factors might mobilize various ethnic groups and set them against each other (Handelman, 2011, p. 113). Modernization challenged traditional religious, national, and tribal identities by undercutting traditional ethnic practices and values. A huge part of current modernization is globalization, which pose an even greater challenge. The long-term effect of the expanding “world culture” advanced by globalization are not entirely clear (Handelman, 2011, p. 114). Globalized culture can create a backlash and increase tensions between neighboring communities as not everyone can ethically identify with each other.
3. What are some reasons that might explain why major civil strife related to ethnicity has declined in the last 10-15 years? Some reasons that might explain why major civil strife related to ethnicity has declined in the last 10-15 years are statecraft, constitutional arrangements and external intervention. In addition, the transition to a democratic government has aided in the decline. Faced with common critical environmental, social and economic matters for the previous 10 to 15 years, different ethnic groups came to what socialist have called a culture of accommodation. Accommodation is the practice which contradictory groups make a mindful attempt to make working arrangements with in them which then suspend the conflict and make their relations more acceptable and reduce wasteful energy.