Tourism – What has ethics got to do with it?
By Laura Pampel, 13341 (2013)
The following article gives an overview about ethics in the tourism industry and the different possibilities for teaching business ethics. And you can find two examples from practice. The first example is the decision making process for visiting Myanmar or not and the second example is taken from the philosophy of the Lindner Hotels and Resorts AG. Introduction – Defining Business Ethics
Before we start the journey to the question and its answer, we have to define what ethics is all about, because if you do not know what ethics or especially business ethics wants to tell us, you cannot think about ethics in tourism. I want to start with two definitions of ethics: “Ethics is concerned with the study of morality and the application of reason to elucidated specific rules and principles that determine right and wrong for a given situation” (Crane and Matten, 2010: 8). A second possibility to define ethics is according to Cordeiro (2003: 265) “ethics is a value system by which individuals evaluate and judge the behaviors of themselves and others”. Lewis came in 1985 to a point, where he said that ethics are ancient, but the question of business ethics is relevant. He said “However the term business ethics is not adequately defined. The typical definitions refer to the rightness or wrongness of behavior, but not everyone agrees on what is morally right or wrong, good or bad, ethical or unethical” (Lewis, 1985: 377). Crane and Matten (2010) found a definition, they are saying “business ethics is the study of business situations, activities and decisions, where issues of right and wrong are addressed” (p.5). In general try to act like the following “act as that you treat humanity, both your own person or in the person of any others always as a purpose and never merely as a resource” (Kant, 1986). In these turbulent times have the people a growing desire for moral orientation (Lehn, 2011). There is a huge influence by the media, every day you have new creepy pictures of all the cruel things in the world and the people need a footing (Lehn, 2001). If you are following Lehn (2011) could this footing may could be found in ethics. Cahn and Pastore (2003) said that “ethics may challenge the harmony” (p.329) and that is true, because if you are discussing about the topics, which are mentioned in the news, you cannot do this without touching ethics, maybe you did not realize until now that you have your own value system, which such traditional values, but be sure you have it and you may be surprised how fixed it is. But now let us have a closer look into the field of ethics in business reality and in business every day’s life. Discussion – Teaching Business ethics
To make ethical correct decisions, you need employees and managers, who are familiar with ethical issues. Therefore is teaching business ethics absolutely necessary, because only if you study business ethics you can apply it (Sims, 2002). The problem is that ethical decision making is not an easy and simple process, there is no one right approach existing and off course every business decision has ethical dimensions (Felton and Sims, 2005). So business ethics are everywhere (Baker and Comer, 2011). For teaching business ethics you have to focus on six most important areas: goals, relevancy, the choice of pedagogy, the classroom climate, debriefing and an outcomes assessment (Sims, 2002). For having effective learning it is necessary to create a safe classroom climate, because the students have to feel safe for participating on discussions and the teacher should participate in group works to as an equal member and not only as the judge at the end (Sims, 2002). According to Felton and Sims (2005) should the learning environment highly interactive. Normally the students want to share their points of view, so the class needs to be on high level of trust to each other and the class needs to be...
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