Ethics Exam Essays

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Ethics Review #2
1)Give the complete definition Aristotle offers of eudaimonia? EUDAIMONIA MEANS HAPPINESS/ FLOURISHING DEFINED AS AN ACTIVITY OF THE SOUL IN ACCORDANCE WITH COMPLETE VIRTUE WITH ADEQUATE EXTERNAL GOODS IN A COMPLETE LIFE This involves one’s life as a whole and consists in action in accord with reason Eudaimonia is not achieved through pleasure, wealth, honor or even virtue on its own. What is an external good? Are external goods necessary or sufficient for happiness? While internal goods are more important, adequate external goods are necessary but not sufficient condition for eudaimonia. External goods from Aristotle’s view include good birth, sufficient wealth and friends. These external goods enable a person to practice complete virtue, because in many practices we use wealth (generosity), friends and political power (justice). Aristotle also includes good birth, good children and even outer beauty. Claiming that we cannot have the character of happiness if we look repulsive, we are childless, ill-born or live in solidarity. (Book one chapter 8) Is virtue necessary or sufficient for happiness?

Happiness depends primarily on character and action in accordance with complete virtue, it is not something we can passively receive from other people or external circumstances and good fortune. it is Aristotle’s view that virtue is necessary but not sufficient for eudaimonia. Virtue alone cannot bring happiness because someone who suffers the worst evils and has no friends or external goods would not be considered happy by any means besides idealistic philosophy What is the most important aspect of happiness? Why? What kind of activities is Aristotle referring to? 3 different types of activity

1. Activity done for it’s own sake
2. Activity only done for the sake of an end
3. Activity both for it’s own sake and for the sake of an end Happiness is the highest goal because it is complete in it’s self, done for it’s own sake.

2) What is Aristole’s view of self love? When is it good and when is it bad? Why do people confuse this? P146

3) GIVE EXAMPLES of 3 virtues in aristoles, showing each is a mean in regard to feeling or actions (be specific) and say what the extremes of the excess and deficiency are. Courage the mean in regard to feelings of fear and confidence in threatening situations excess: arrogant, reckless, rash, lack fear when needed

deficiency: fearful, cowardice, timid
Generosity the mean in regard to the action of giving and taking resources excess: wasteful, irresponsible, impulsive
deficiency: selfishness, stinginess, greedy
Friendliness is the mean with regard to actions that cause pleasure and pain in others excess: people pleaser
deficiency: quarrelsome
4) Why are the pursuits of pleasure and honor rejected as the good life?p4 and p19 1. The vulgar perceive happiness as pleasure, a life of gratification appears slavish like animal activities/grazing cows. 2. The political person perceives happiness as honor, insufficient because it can come and go and depends on those giving honor making it too external and superficial 5) Are virtue and vice voluntary? Can we change who we are? Explain aristotles view and your own Yes, virtue and vice are voluntary, both virtue and vice are in harmony with our desires and reason. vice develops after the character of someone becomes so that they preceive what is bad as good, this person according to aristole is still held responsible for their activity even though they can’t on their own change their character due to their perception. I think we can change with outside intervention.

6) What is the relationship between knowledge and virtue in Aristotle? Are the virtues of thought necessary or sufficient for moral virtue? What kind of wisdom matters here? p162

7) What are the three types of friendship? Why is the best one the best?p121 1. Loving the other due to utility
2. loving the other due to pleasure
3....
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