Nonmaleficence: Do No Harm
-the avoidance of harm to others
(both psychological and physical harm)
(both intentional and unintentional harm)
The ethical obligation to intervene increases with the magnitude and risk of harm.
Beneficence: Act to Benefit Others
-the obligation to make a positive contribution to another’s welfare
-the promotion of personal growth
-Beneficence often needs to be balanced against doing harm, to doing no harm to one party while helping another, and respecting autonomy.
Autonomy: Respect Autonomy
-the right to act as a free agent
-freedom of thought or choice
-freedom of action
-the right of self-determination
-respect for the autonomy right of rights
-the right to privacy
Justice: Promote Justice
-fair treatment of all persons
-fair distribution of goods, services and rewards
-Three standards should be observed
-equality: equals ought to be treated equally; unequals ought to be treated unequally in proportion to their inequality
Fidelity: Be Faithful
-the obligation to keep promises
-the obligation to be loyal
-the obligation to be untruthful
-special obligations come with contracts between individuals of unequal knowledge or power.
From: Kitchener, K.S. (1985). Ethical principles and ethical decisions in college student affairs. In H.J. Canon & R.D. Brown (Eds.), New directions for student services: Applied ethics in students, no. 30. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Based: Beauchamp, T.L. & Childress, J.F. (1979). Principles of biomedical ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ramsey, P. (1970). The patient as person. New Haven: Yale University Press.