Ethics

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Kitchener's Ethical Principles

Nonmaleficence: Do No Harm

-the avoidance of harm to others

(both psychological and physical harm)

(both intentional and unintentional harm)

The ethical obligation to intervene increases with the magnitude and risk of harm.

Beneficence: Act to Benefit Others

-the obligation to make a positive contribution to another’s welfare

-the promotion of personal growth

-Beneficence often needs to be balanced against doing harm, to doing no harm to one party while helping another, and respecting autonomy.

Autonomy: Respect Autonomy

-the right to act as a free agent

-freedom of thought or choice

-freedom of action

-the right of self-determination

-respect for the autonomy right of rights

-the right to privacy

-confidentiality

-informed consent

Justice: Promote Justice

-fair treatment of all persons

-fair distribution of goods, services and rewards

-Three standards should be observed

-reciprocity

-impartiality

-equality: equals ought to be treated equally; unequals ought to be treated unequally in proportion to their inequality

Fidelity: Be Faithful

-the obligation to keep promises

-the obligation to be loyal

-the obligation to be untruthful

-special obligations come with contracts between individuals of unequal knowledge or power.

From: Kitchener, K.S. (1985). Ethical principles and ethical decisions in college student affairs. In H.J. Canon & R.D. Brown (Eds.), New directions for student services: Applied ethics in students, no. 30. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Based: Beauchamp, T.L. & Childress, J.F. (1979). Principles of biomedical ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ramsey, P. (1970). The patient as person. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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