Ethics

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Case:
 Global
 Approaches
 to
 Anti-­‐Corruption
 
  In
  August
  2011,
  Anna
  Hazare
  initiated
  an
  anti-­‐corruption
  hunger
  strike
  campaign
  in
  India,
  calling
  for
  greater
  anti-­‐corruption
  powers
  and
  regulations
  to
  be
  implemented
  by
  the
  government.
  India’s
  current
  ruling
  Congress
  Party
  has
  been
  hit
  by
  a
  series
  of
  damaging
  corruption
 scandals
 over
 the
 past
 year,
 such
 as
 the
 sale
 of
 mobile
 phone
 frequency
 licences
 and
  financial
  irregularities
  in
  the
  2010
  Commonwealth
  Games
  in
  Delhi.
  These
  shocking
  aspects
  of
  corruption
  in
  a
  sovereign
  government
  can
  be
  contrasted
  to
  the
  case
  study
  of
  American
  Voting
  Machine
 Corp
 (“AVM”)
 and
 its
 interactions
 with
 the
 Guatador
 government.
 A
 key
 area
 of
 concern
  is
 the
 nature
 of
 AVM’s
 interactions
 with
 the
 Guatador
 government
 in
 the
 process
 of
 obtaining
 the
  contract.
 
 
  Corruption
  in
  countries
  is
  usually
  a
  product
  of
  the
  structure
  of
  government
  as
  well
  as
  the
  immunity
 of
 public
 officials
 that
 comprise
 it.
 It
 is
 no
 different
 in
 the
 case
 of
 the
 government
 of
  Guatador,
  which
  was
  previously
  a
  dictatorship.
  Surprisingly,
  despite
  the
  recent
  transition
  to
  democracy,
  the
  ministries
  and
  bureaucracy
  of
  the
  previous
  regime
  remained
  intact
  and
  in
  power.
  This
  is
  characteristic
  of
  a
  fundamental
  contributor
  to
  the
  presence
  of
  corruption,
  namely
  kleptocracy.
  A
  kleptocracy,
  in
  this
  case,
  consists
  of
  the
  ‘elected’
  officials
  together
  with
  their
  followers
  who
  constitute
  the
  ruling
  class
  in
  the
  new
  government.
  The
  fact
  that
  they
  were
  part
  of
  the
 previous
 unpopular
 dictator
 regime
 only
 highlights
 the
 large
 imbalance
 of
 power
 wielded
 by
  these
  officials
  and
  the
  apparent
  “futility”
  of
  democratic
  voting.
  Another
  issue
  is
  the
  Guatador
  government’s
  act
  of
  issuing
  a
  sole
  contract
  for
  a
  voting
  machine
  supplier
  to
  attract
  foreign
  investment.
 “A
 feature
 of
 kleptocratic
 governments
 is
 the
 prominent
 role
 of
 the
 government
 in
  awarding
  contracts
  for
  the
  purchase
  of
  goods,
  services,
  infrastructure.”
  (Chan,
  G.
  &
  Shenoy
  G.)
  According
 to
 John
 Rawl’s
 theory
 of
 Justice
 as
 Fairness,
 decisions
 made
 by
 the
 officials
 should
 be
  done
  under
  a
  “veil
  of
  ignorance”,
  meaning
  that
  they
  would
  not
  know
  in
  advance
  the
  superior
  power
 and
 status
 enjoyed
 over
 other
 minor
 officials
 or
 their
 fellow
 countrymen.
 As
 a
 result,
 the
  Principle
  of
  Equality
  of
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