1. What is an “argument” in philosophy?
A set of claims one of which, called the conclusion, is said to be supported by the other claims, called the premises. 1. Premise
2. What do the terms “valid” and “sound” mean?
If the premises are true, then it follows necessarily that the conclusion is true, or it is logically impossible for the conclusion to be false. Sound Argument
A valid argument that contains only true premises. Soundness = Truth + Validity.
3. Sketch the “benefits arguments” in favor of harvesting Baby’s Theresa’s organs.
Set out the premises and conclusion for "Benefits Argument" in the Baby Theresa case. The Benefits Argument
1. If we can benefit someone without harming anyone else, we ought to do so. 2. Transplanting the organs would benefit the other children without harming Baby Theresa. 3. Therefore, we ought to transplant her organs.
The Argument That We should Not Use People As Means
1. If we use someone only as a means, we do something that is morally wrong. 2. Taking Theresa's organs would be using her only as a meas to benefit other children. 3. There fore, it would be morally wrong to take Theresa's organs.
4. Sketch the “we should not use people as means” argument against harvesting Baby Theresa’s organs. Set out the premises and conclusion for "The Wrongfulness of Killing Argument" in the Baby Theresa case. The Argument From the Wrongfulness of Killing
1. If we harvested Theresa's organs, then we would be killing one innocent person to save another. 2. We should not kill one innocent person to save another.
3. Therefore, if we should not harvest Theresa's organs.
*The prohibition against killing is strong, but most people do not think it absolute. Baby Theresa is (1) going to die soon anyway, (2) not conscious, and (3) her organs could help save several other children. Rachels states that we might even regard Baby...