Ethical Theories

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Ariq Zaman
MME 101
Ethical Theories

The word ethics comes from the Greek word ethos, which means morals. Ethical theories are the basics of ethical analysis because they are the perspective from which guidance can be attained along the pathway to a decision. Each theory highlights different points such as forecasting the outcomes and following one's responsibilities to others in order to attain an ethically correct decision. “The moral rightness of an action, unlike the cultural or legal or religious rightness of an action, is not necessarily about whether the action conforms to the laws of some culture or government or religion.” Therefore, the moral rightness of the ethics theories does not always line up with cultural values and can suggest being harmful to the society. There are many Ethical Theories available and different individuals follow different ethical theories. In the paragraphs below I will discuss Utilitarianism Theory, Egoism Theory, and Rights Theory; and the behaviors each theory suggests. John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarianism is a moral theory that bases its decisions on the consequences of individual’s decisions. The main question under this theory is what would provide the “greatest good for the greatest number of people.” The Utilitarianism Theory “(1) Recognizes the fundamental role of pain and pleasure in human life, (2) approves or disapproves of an action on the basis of the amount of pain or pleasure brought about i.e, consequences, (3) equates good with pleasure and evil with pain, and (4) asserts that pleasure and pain are capable of quantification (and hence 'measure').” Therefore the outcome of an individual’s choice must take into account others feelings while making a decision. Essentially utilitarianism suggests that if majority of the people who are affected by a decision or action are not happy then the decision or action is wrong. This theory supports that individuals should not follow what culture...
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