Ethical theories are the concepts that provide various viewpoints and guidance in making beneficial decisions. With the ethical theories, principles can be beneficial to each of the theories success. In this paper, traditional theories analyze how to gain a principle understanding of where they originated and how they achieve as theories. Ethical theories include and provide a brief background of Utilitarianism, Kantian, Social Contract, Divine Command, Natural Law, and the theory of Virtue. In addition, research will explain the concepts of both the individual and cultural relativism; after the research, a resolution will research and explain the concepts on how ethical relativism differs from the traditional ethical theories. Six Ethical Theories
Ethical theories are groundwork and framework of moral evaluation. Ethical theories are the perspectives in achieving direction in decision making. Utilitarianism, Kantian, Social Contract, Divine Command, Natural Law, and Virtue Theories underscore the various ideas to come up with a truthful outcome focused on mutual objectives. These mutual objectives are the moral ideologies, which the six theories will attempt to accomplish to gain effectiveness. Utilitarianism Theory
Ethical theories can provide various resolutions, but each resolution will differ depending on each accident and how ethical theories resolute their guidelines to be the correct resolution. A key 18th century founder and influential British philosopher of Jeremy Bentham who contributed the theory of utilitarianism, as it has that ability to provide penalties on various actions. The utilitarianism theory acts as a moral theory that provides choices to ensure less harm. Utilitarianism theory provides actions that require decisions, and through those decisions, outcomes will occur that provide an evaluation outcome for each action. Regardless of the decisions decided, the focus is the outcome, and the demand actions regardless of the cost. Utilitarianism will support a decision made for the greater benefit over the least, even though they beneficial to the outcome and greater good. Kantian Theory
There are various reasons a person makes decisions. Those various reasons may not benefit that person in the end, as that person may believe complete gratification brings beneficial happiness. Based on a German philosopher Immanuel Kant who passed in February 1804 continues to inspire philosophers today and his work influence those thinkers today who develop various enlightenment approaches into problem in philosophy. Kant says the use a self-law is a guide. Internally we know what is wrong or right and through the self-law, we determine our own behavior instead of others telling us how to act. We hope to do the right things for the right reasons and hope our intentions are beneficial to reasons that we decide. Social Contract Theory
An aspect in motivating the creation of the Declaration of Independence identified by a number of theorists is the perception or belief of the social contract theory. Under the declaration, the government is established by the people giving the people the power to modify or even eliminate the newly established government. “A government of the people, by the people, for the people” is the justification of the concept of social contract theory in allowing the people to govern among men: The social contract is the concept that human beings have made an agreement with their government, whereby the government and the people have distinct roles and responsibilities. The theory is based on the idea that humans abandoned a natural (free and ungoverned) condition in favor of a society that provides them with order, structure, and, very importantly, protection ("What Is The Social Contract?" 2012). Under social contract theory,...