ethical issues related to reproducation

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Assisted Reproduction Technology is a new found system to aid infertile couples to get children. It is also used in transgender couples and genetic concerns in the family.  The examples of assisted reproduction technology include invitro-fertilization embryo transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, gamete intrafalllopian transfer, zygote intrafallopian transfer and intrauterine insemination. It is a practice that has caused wide controversy from the ethical point of view. There are many ethical issues surrounding artificial reproduction. Many religious organizations condemn the practice as it goes against the religious beliefs. Most religions believe that God is the sole creator of life and determiner of fertility of an individual. Therefore, the practice is viewed as one that is trying to supersede the power and belief in God. The element of surrogate parenting in assisted reproduction is also a highly thorny issue in the society. The practice of sperm egg donation is also very emotive. The main protagonist in this debate is the religious organizations and their beliefs and practices (Gillian, 2003). Surrogate parenting is an arrangement in which an infertile married couple contracts a fertile woman to undergo gestation on their behalf and surrender the child after birth. This is described as a non-nuclear family arrangement in that the family allows a third party into their family relationship to play the role of a birth mother. Surrogate parenting raises various ethical questions. There are various forms of surrogate parenting. These include traditional and gestational. In traditional surrogacy, the mother shares genetic information as the child since she acts as a sperm recipient. The gestational surrogacy involves insemination with fertile ovum of the infertile couple. Therefore, she does not share genetic information as the child. The ethical dilemma that exists in surrogate parenting is whereby commercial surrogacy is viewed as exploitative to poor single women. The woman is viewed as a mere incubator while her money is siphoned by the surrogate agencies. The child is traumatized on discovering that the mother raising him/her is not her biological mother due to different genetic information. This leads to acrimony in the family. Some organizations claim that surrogacy leads to commoditization of babies as mere goods. This shows a lack of respect to the human being as a whole (Gillian, 2003). Surrogate parenting causes controversy in the traditional definition of a family unit. A family is viewed as made of mother, father and children who are genetically related. Surrogacy allows a third party into the traditional nuclear family. This distorts the meaning completely. This is especially so in traditional form of surrogate parenting. In this form, the surrogate mother is just not the gestational bearer of the child, but she also shares genetic information with the child. The family will be in a dilemma whether to inform the child of his gestation and parenting lest he/she finds out. Such information is likely to break the family unit (Markens, 2007). Commercial surrogate parenting has been viewed as exploitative.  Young single and poor girls are chosen to act as surrogate mothers. The agency that contracts them does not care about their well-being but is interested in profiteering from their services. These girls are paid 10000-150000 dollars for their services. Court cases have been filed where these mothers reject the money to take custody of the children. This is the exploitative nature of the practice (Markens, 2007). Doctors place multiple eggs into the womb of a woman in artificial reproduction. The medical significance of this practice is to reduce the proportion and margin of error. Statistics shows that most of the eggs implanted into a woman do not get implanted and are aborted by the mother. As such, the practice of inserting multiple eggs is to increase the likelihood of...
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