There are many definitions for ethics: According to Compton (2007), ethics means a system of moral principles; the rules of conduct recognized; the rightness and wrongness of certain actions. But there is only one clear, consistent guideline for incorporating ethical practices when presenting: Ethical conduct starts with the Presenter. In this research, the main aim is to show that when presenting certain issues to adult learners, an instructor or HR specialists according Compton (2007) are expected to: -Make ethics a priority;
-Set a good example of ethical conduct;
- Be sensitive to culture, beliefs, and environment of the learners. -Consider ethics in decision making.
Ethical issues are rarely simple to adhere to because individuals' ethical sensitivities vary, program presenters need to evaluate individual cases to ensure protocols are followed; Goldman (2008). It is actually not easy, but it is important. Ethics is a social construction; there is no real line between right and wrong. Societies, as groups, develop basic ethical values, which individuals use to determine whether actions between societal members and others are right or wrong (e.g., ethical or unethical). Societal institutions, such as religion, schools, and organizations, help shape individual determinants of ethical behavior. However, each individual has different ethical practices and principles that are based on underlying values (Lawrence, Weber and Post, 2005). How does an adult educator unpack ethical issues within mentoring contexts, especially when those issues nest in interpersonal relationships? A variety of uncomfortable situations may arise, First, Presenters may be friendly with their learners, but friendships between presenters and learners are tricky and have the potential to hurt both parties involved. Second, presenters themselves need their own mentors at times, and they should consider finding and asking for help in challenging situations. A presenter is expected to not harm, communicate honestly, and examine power and privilege by being sensitive (Hansman, 2009).
Before learning the ethical issues of presenting, one has to realize the importance of planning the program first. This is a must take initial step prior to any presentation. Program planning in adult education is a complicated, multistep process requiring numerous decisions at many points. Like that of teachers, decision making by program planners is influenced not only by their own value systems but also by their responsibilities to multiple audiences who may have differing expectations for program development processes and outcomes. Ethical issues arise in program planning when any of the alternatives under consideration are associated with value positions that may be viewed as unacceptable by society, other practitioners, clients, sponsors, or planners themselves. Two areas of ethical dilemmas encountered in program planning as described by Sork (1988a) are the following: Those affiliated with needs: Two areas of dilemmas associated with needs include (1) Responding to "felt" or "expressed"
(2) Basing a program on needs unacknowledged by the
In the first, the autonomy of the learner is taken into consideration, but the planner may have to make a decision about which of many needs it is feasible to address, or may be confronted with expressed needs that are potentially harmful.
Many Ethical practice situations are characterized by ambiguity and conflicting values, thereby preventing adult educators from applying standardized principles as solutions. Instead, educators begin to make choices that are based on their beliefs about the way things ought to be. However, these choices are frequently made without reflecting on the value judgments and assumptions that implicitly operate throughout...