We are going through a time of profound change in our understanding of the ethics of applied social research. From the time immediately after World War II until the early 1990s, there was a gradually developing consensus about the key ethical principles that should underlie the research endeavor. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study involved the withholding of known effective treatment for syphilis from African-American participants who were infected. Events like these forced the reexamination of ethical standards and the gradual development of a consensus that potential human subjects needed to be protected from being used as 'guinea pigs' in scientific research. Although the last few years in the ethics of research have been tumultuous ones, it is beginning to appear that a new consensus is evolving that involves the stakeholder groups most affected by a problem participating more actively in the formulation of guidelines for research. While it's not entirely clear, at present, what the new consensus will be, it is almost certain that it will not fall at either extreme: protecting against human experimentation at all costs vs. allowing anyone who is willing to be experimented on. Ethics in Research – Why?
To protect rights and welfare of research participants and to protect the wider society or community within which the research is being conducted is used ethics in research, some mechanisms of protection are: Ethical regulations or guidelines, law, and universal principles of human rights. In research the ethical principles helps to make and justify decisions but can be abstract and difficult to implement in practical situations In a research the researcher have to follow this principles guiding research: * Respect for human dignity
* Respect for free and informed consent
* Respect for vulnerable persons
* Respect for privacy and confidentiality
* Respect for justice and inclusiveness