Ethanol

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Introduction:

Ethanol is a form of a alcohol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol. It is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. Ethanol is a straight-chain alcohol, and its molecular formula is C2H5OH. Its empirical formula is C2H6O. An alternative notation is CH3–CH2–OH, which indicates that the carbon of a methyl group (CH3–) is attached to the carbon of a methylene group (–CH2–), which is attached to the oxygen of a hydroxyl group (–OH). It is a constitutional isomer of dimethyl ether. Ethanol is the systematic name defined by the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry for a molecule with two carbon atoms, having a single bond between them, and an attached -OH group. Is also produced from ethylene. It is also used as solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavorings, colorings, and medicines. In chemistry, it is both an essential solvent and a feedstock for the synthesis of other products. The fermentation of sugar into ethanol is one of the earliest organic reactions employed by humanity. The history of ethanol first was obtained pure ethanol by filtering distilled ethanol, then described ethanol as a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Later on the scientists determined ethanol’s chemical formula and published the structural formula of ethanol.

Uses of Ethanol :

* Ethanol is often called ‘drinking alcohol’ or ‘pure alcohol’ as it is the prime ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Ethanol is the intoxicating substance in alcohol. * It can be used as a fuel for motor vehicles. It make a good fuel for cars because it reduces the emission of harmful gases such as carbon monoxide. * Ethanol is used in antiseptic and some antibacterial soaps and wipes. Ethanol is effective against viruses, fungi and most bacteria but is ineffective against bacterial spores. * Ethanol is occasionally used to treat poisoning by other alcohols that are more deadly. * As ethanol is soluble in water, it can be used in a variety of different products. These include paint, permanent markers, perfumes and deodorants. Ethanol may also be used as a solvent in cooking, such as vodka sauce. * Ethanol is considered a ‘feedstock’ into the chemical industry as it is used to make other important chemicals.

There are different types of ethanol production which are:
* Ethanol from sugar by fermentation
* Ethanol from starch
* Anaerobic yeast fermentation
* Ethanol from Cellulose
* Dry-mill fermentation
* Wet-mill fermentation
* Lignocelluloses Ethanol Process

Anaerobic yeast fermentation for the production of ethanol:

Whether used for research or production, the versatile BioFlo 310 fermentor from New Brunswick Scientific allows growth of a wide variety of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including bacteria, plant, algae, fungi and yeast. Its advanced controller can regulate up to four vessels simultaneously, 120 process loops in all. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model eukaryotic organism, often used in research as it is easy to manipulate and culture, and is comparatively similar in structure to human cells. This yeast is also widely used in industrial applications to manufacture enzymes and proteins for beer, wine and bread, and because it metabolizes glucose to ethanol, is also used to produce many biofuel products. Ethanol from is produced from a S. cerevisiae (American Type Culture Collection strain 20602) in a 7.5 liter BioFlo 310 fermentor, to demonstrate the flexibility of this advanced fermentation system. First, the yeast is grown in an aerobic environment, using a dissolved oxygen cascade control strategy to produce a sufficient cell density. Then nitrogen is pumped in, to create an anaerobic environment for inducing ethanol production, then reduction and...
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