Estimation of Species Richness

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ABSTRACT

Biodiversity means the intrinsically – inbuilt plus the externally imposed variability in & among living organisms existing in terrestrial, marine, & other ecosystem at a specific period of time. Bangladesh is a biodiversity riched country. Biodiversity is essential for our existence and environmental balance. We went to “BINODIA FAMILY PARK” & “SUNDERBANS” to determine the species richness of various plants and animals. We used the three methods—Simpson’s index, Shannon--Wiener index and Margalef index for these purposes and we observed that the species richness is not equal at all due to natural condition or anthropogenic causes. We have taken some decision about biodiversity conservation from the research. We hope that if we apply these research and conservation methods it will be helpful for enhancing the richness of biodiversity. In future, highly moderate research can be performed based on this research.

INTRODUCTION
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biological diversity is the result of interaction between climate , organism ,topography, parent soil materials, time & heredity. It is estimated that 5-30 million species of living forms exist on our earth. Of which only 1.5 million have been identified. They include 300000 species of green plant and fungi, 800000 species of insects, 400000 species of vertebrates & 360000 species of microorganism. ( P.V.Rao) There is a wide variety of animal diversity to be found in the wilderness areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a home to roughly 22 species of amphibian ,17 species of marine reptiles,109 species of reptile,388 species of birds ,110 species of mammals, & 3 species of marine mammals. In addition to the large bird count a further 240 species of migratory birds, swell birds mammals. ( P.V.Rao) Sundarban is the largest biodiversity riched place not only in Bangladesh but also all over the world. It is the breeding ground of immense of birds & unknown wildlife of the world. It consists of a large flora population like genwa, dhundal, passur,goran ,garjan & kankra. The most wild life found in Sundarban are tiger , jungle cats, fishing cats, axis deer, wild boar, monkeys, mongooses, crocodiles, & immense variety of birds. A wide variety of aquatic life forms that include olive ridly sea turtle , hard shelled batgur terrapin , pythons, king kobra , lizards etc (Website -1) The main objectives of biodiversity conservation are – * The conservation of biological diversity

* The sustainable use of components of biodiversity
* The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out o f the utilization genetic resources (kumar &Asija) One of the major priorities of conservationists is to determine the most important areas for a given species or group. Many studies attempt to determine whether & to what extent populations of marine flora & fauna are changing. This may be monitor the fate of species of conservation interest or to see whether a specific species is increasing or decreasing. (Chakarabarti, 1988).

One useful approach is to determine the requirement of a species & try to determine whether the factors meeting these requirements have changed. Another very important view is to compare the site in which the species occurs with the site from which it has disappeared or endangered & also to compare the limiting factors in different areas & correlate this to population size or population tends. (Chakarabarti & Choudhury, 1992).

Location

Figure :- Map (JESSORE DISTRICT) . LITERATURE REVIEW...
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