Essentials of Stylistics_
Phonetic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices
Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature, by things, by people and by animals.
E.g.: ding-dong, buzz, bang, cuckoo, roar, ping-pong, etc.
Alliteration is the repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonants, in close succession, often in the initial position.
E.g.: "Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before." (E. A. Poe)
Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combinations of words. In verse rhyming words are usually placed at the end of the corresponding lines.
E.g.: "I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers." (internal rhyme) (Shelly)
Rhythm is a flow, movement, procedure, etc., characterized by basically regular recurrence of elements or features, as beat, or accent, in alternation with opposite or different element or features.
E.g.: "The high-sloping roof, of a fine sooty pink was almost Danish, and two 'ducky ' little windows looked out of it, giving an impression that every tall servant lived up there" (J. Galsworthy)
Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices
Bathos means bringing together unrelated elements as they denoted things equal in rank or belonging to one class, as if they were of the same stylistic aspect. By being forcibly linked together, the elements acquire a slight modification of meaning.
E.g.: "They grieved for those who perished with the cutter And also for the biscuit-casks and butter." (Byron)
Metaphor means transference of some quality from one object to another. In other words, it describes one thing in terms of another, creating an implicit comparison.
E.g.: "In a caverni under is fettered the thunder, It struggles and howls at fits? (Shelly)
Personification is a description of an object or an idea as if it were a human being.
E.g.: The long arm of the law will catch him in the end.
Metonymy is the term used when the name of an attribute or object is substituted for the object itself. It is based on some kind of association connecting two concepts which are represented by the dictionary and contextual meanings.
E.g.: the Stage = the theatrical profession; the Crown = the King or Queen; a hand = a worker; etc.
Metonуmу is a transfer of the name of one object to another with which it is in some way connected.
E.g.: The hall applauded.
Irony is a figure of speech by means of which a word or words express the direct opposite of what their primary dictionary meanings denote.
E.g.: It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one pocket.
Irony is the clash of two opposite meanings within the same context, which is sustained in oral speech by intonation. Bitter or politically aimed irony is called SARCASM.
Е. g.: Stoney smiled the sweet smile of an alligator.
Zeugma is the use of a word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to two adjacent words in the context, the semantic relations being, on the one hand, literal and, on the other, transferred.
E.g.:" Whether the Nymph Shall stain her Honour or her new Brocade Or lose her Heart or necklace at a Ball." (Pope)
Zeugma - the context allows to realize two meanings of the same polysemantic word without the repetition of the word itself.
E.g.: Mr. Stiggins ... took his hat and his leave.
Pun is another stylistic device based on the interaction of two well-known meanings of a word or phrase, more independent than zeugma.
E.g.: What is the difference between a schoolmaster and an engine-driver? One trains the mind and the other minds the train.
Pun is play on words.
E.g.: "Did you hit a woman with a child?" - "No, Sir, I hit her with a brick."
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