1.1 In a multiprogramming and time-sharing environment, several users share the system simultaneously. This situation can result in various security problems. a. What are two such problems? b. Can we ensure the same degree of security in a time-shared machine as in a dedicated machine? Explain your answer.
Answer: a. Stealing or copying one’s programs or data; using system resources (CPU, memory, disk space, peripherals) without proper accounting. b. Probably not, since any protection scheme devised by humans can inevitably be broken by a human, and the more complex the scheme, the more difficult it is to feel confident of its correct implementation.
1.2 The issue of resource utilization shows up in different forms in different types of operating systems. List what resources must be managed carefully in the following settings: a. Mainframe or minicomputer systems b. Workstations connected to servers c. Handheld computers Answer: a. Mainframes: memory and CPU resources, storage, network bandwidth. b. Workstations: memory and CPU resouces c. Handheld computers: power consumption, memory resources.
1.3 Under what circumstances would a user be better off using a timesharing system rather than a PC or single-user workstation? Answer: When there are few other users, the task is large, and the hardware is fast, timesharingmakes sense. The full power of the system can be brought to bear on the user’s problem. The problemcan be solved faster than on a personal computer. Another case occurs when lots of other users need resources at the same time. A personal computer is best when the job is small enough to be executed reasonably on it and when performance is sufficient to execute the program to the user’s satisfaction. 1.4 Which of the functionalities listed below need to be supported by the
operating system for the following two settings: (a) handheld devices and (b) real-time systems. a. Batch programming b. Virtual memory c. Time sharing Answer: For real-time systems, the operating system needs to support virtualmemory and time sharing in a fair manner. For handheld systems, the operating system needs to provide virtual memory, but does not need to provide time-sharing. Batch programming is not necessary in both settings. 1.5 Describe the differences between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. What are three advantages and one disadvantage of multiprocessor systems? Answer: Symmetric multiprocessing treats all processors as equals, and I/O can be processed on any CPU. Asymmetric multiprocessing has one master CPU and the remainder CPUs are slaves. The master distributes tasks among the slaves, and I/O is usually done by the master only. Multiprocessors can save money by not duplicating power supplies, housings, and peripherals. They can execute programs more quickly and can have increased reliability. They are also more complex in both hardware and software than uniprocessor systems.
1.6 How do clustered systems differ from multiprocessor systems? What is required for two machines belonging to a cluster to cooperate to provide a highly available service? Answer: Clustered systems are typically constructed by combining multiple computers into a single system to perform a computational task distributed across the cluster. Multiprocessor systems on the other hand could be a single physical entity comprising of multiple CPUs. A clustered system is less tightly coupled than a multiprocessor system. Clustered systems communicate using messages, while processors in a multiprocessor system could communicate using shared memory. In order for twomachines to provide a highly available service, the state on the two machines should be replicated and should be consistently updated. When one of the machines fail, the other could then take-over the functionality of the failed machine. 1.7 Distinguish between the client–server and peer-to-peer models of distributed systems. Answer: The...