P A R T
IT Infrastructure: Hardware and Software Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Securing Information Systems
Part II provides the technical foundation for understanding information systems by examining hardware, software, databases, networking technologies, and tools and techniques for security and control. This part answers questions such as these: What technologies and tools do businesses today need to accomplish their work? What do I need to know about these technologies to make sure they enhance the performance of my firm? How are these technologies likely to change in the future?
IT Infrastructure: Hardware and Software
C H A P T E R
STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After completing this chapter, you will be able to answer the following questions: 1. 2.
What are the components of IT infrastructure? What are the major computer hardware, data storage, input, and output technologies used in business? What are the major types of computer software used in business? What are the most important contemporary hardware and software trends? What are the principal issues in managing hardware and software technology?
C HAPTER O UTLINE
Chapter-Opening Case: University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s Technology Cure 4.1 IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware 4.2 IT Infrastructure: Computer Software 4.3 Managing Hardware and Software Technology 4.4 Hands-On MIS Business Problem-Solving Case: Amazon’s New Store: Utility Computing
UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH MEDICAL CENTER’S TECHNOLOGY CURE
The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) is a $6 billion integrated health care enterprise and a widely recognized leader in using information technology for health care. UPMC puts great demands on its information systems to operate 19 hospitals, a network of other care sites, and international and commercial ventures. With 43,000 employees, it is the largest employer in western Pennsylvania. It is a national leader in implementing electronic medical records. UPMC was such a heavy user of information technology that demand for additional servers and storage technology was growing by 20 percent each year. Integrating the systems of a new hospital it acquired or adding new information systems increased the complexity of its infrastructure, making it increasingly difficult to manage. UPMC was setting up a separate server for every application, and its servers and other computers were running a number of different operating systems, including several versions of UNIX and Windows. UPMC had to manage technologies from many different vendors, including Hewlett-Packard (HP), Sun Microsystems, Microsoft, and IBM.
Part II: Information Technology Infrastructure
To reduce costs and simplify its IT infrastructure, UPMC turned to IBM. In 2005, UPMC selected IBM as its primary server and storage technology provider with the goal of reducing UPMC’s IT infrastructure spending by 20 percent. IBM would also provide help in managing the people, process, and technology issues surrounding the overhaul of UPMC’s IT infrastructure. Both organizations agreed to work together on developing applications to jointly market to other hospitals and health care firms. IBM recommended that UPMC use virtualization to reduce the number of servers it needed to run its applications. Virtualization makes it possible to put many applications on a single physical server but give each its own instance of the operating system, so what appear to be many separate applications and operating systems are running on a single machine. It standardized UNIX applications on IBM’s AIX version of the UNIX operating system running on IBM System p5 595 servers and used VMware technology to consolidate more than 1,000 physical servers on...