Essential Newborn Care Implementation

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Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction
Newborn care is the most essential procedure in the delivery room, it is a procedure or a proper way of handling the baby and implementing the proper way for the newborn. A newborn baby can acquire complications if the procedure was incorrectly performed. The Intrapartum/Newborn Practices assessment tools were developed through a collaboration between the Philippine General Hospital and World Health Organization (WHO) with Department of Health (DOH) (Sala, 2011). The Essential newborn care protocol is a step-by-step guide for health workers and medical practitioners issued by the Department of Health for implementation under Administrative order 2009-0025 (Sala, 2011). The Department of Health embarked on Essential Newborn Care , a new program to address neonatal deaths in the country. Under the umbrella of the Unang Yakap Campaign, Essential Newborn Care  is an evidenced based strategic intervention aimed at improving newborn care and helping neonatal mortality ( KATHARINA, 2010). The Essential Newborn Care package is a four-step newborn care  time-bound intervention undertaken to lessen newborn death.First is Immediate and thorough drying to stimulate breathing after delivery of the baby; and provision of appropriate thermal care through mother and newborn skin-to skin contact maintaining a delivery room temperature of 25-28 degrees centigrade and wrapping the newborn with clean dry cloth; properly timed clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord, (1-3 minutes or until cord pulsation stops);non-separation of the newborn and mother for early breast-feeding for the immediate latching on and initiation of breastfeeding within first hour after birth (KATHARINA, 2010). A study conducted at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Division of Neonatology shows that training birth attendants in essential newborn-care techniques reduced stillbirths by more than 30 percent and potentially could save as many as 1 million lives worldwide each year (Carlo 2011). Another study by U.S. researchers looked at the effectiveness of a newborn care program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and found that it reduced by more than one-third the number of newborn stillbirths in six countries where it was tried (Berman 2010). Berman (2010) states that the effectiveness birth techniques, among 120,000 births revealed the rate of stillbirths dropped from 23 per 1,000 deliveries and 16 stillborn babies per 1,000 births. World Health Organization(WHO) (2012) states that Philippine research has also documented that these evidence-based newborn care interventions are not practiced sufficiently. It is on this premises that the current study was conducted to determine the essential newborn care emplementation among delivery/operating room nurses at Adventist Medical Center, Tibanga, Iligan City.

Theoretical Framework
The study made use of the Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura(1977) and the Human Care by Jean Watson(2003). Albert Bandura’s (1977) Social Learning theory is a learning theory based on the ideas that people learn by watching what others do, and that human thought processes are central to understanding personality. The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states: "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, an environmental influences. The component processes underlying...
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