The aim of this essay is to discuss a urological condition of the author’s choice. The author will clarify what the prostate gland is, where it is located, and its functions as well as pathological conditions such as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The author will identify and analyse the presenting symptoms, clinical investigations which lead to diagnosis and will conclude with important symptoms and investigations related to specific prostate condition in this essay.
The prostate gland is a solid, chestnut-shaped organ surrounding the first part of the urethra. The prostate gland is situated immediately under the bladder and in the anterior of the rectum. The prostate gland produces secretions that form part of the seminal fluid during ejaculation. The ejaculatory ducts from the seminal vesicles pass through the fluid during ejaculation. The ejaculatory ducts from the seminal vesicles pass through the prostate gland to enter the urethra. The prostate gland weighs only a few grams at birth. Enlargement starts at puberty from the effect of androgen hormones and stops at around the age of 20, when it reaches its adult weight of about 20 grams. In most men, the prostate begins to enlarge further after the age of 50. The prostate gland consists of two main zones; an inner zone (which produces secretions responsible for keeping the lining of the urethra moist) and an outer zone (which produces seminal secretion). (Stevenson, 2003).
BPH is a benign prostate disease in which the prostate gland grows in size. The sheer bulk of the prostate may compress the urethra which runs through the centre of the prostate, impeding the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra to the outside; this is known as outflow obstruction. This leads to urine retention and the need for frequent urination. If BPH is severe, complete blockage can occur (Kirby and McConnell, 2002). Kirby and McConnell, 2002 went on to say an enlarged prostate is common particularly in older males, the prostate sits at the neck of the bladder, straddling the tubes which carry urine and semen, it has been described as a walnut sized, its provides nutrients and protection for the sperm about to make the long journey to the womb, should it enlarge too much, can be obstruction and even complete blockage of urine from the bladder to the penis. When caused by simple enlargement with no involvement it is referred to as BPH its impact can be far from benign (Stevenson, 2003). The function of this is to give the adequate secretions which nourishes from and gives to medium to be passed on to the womb. Histologically, it’s divided into two parts, central zone and peripheral zone. Enlargement does not necessary courses symptoms, but when symptoms appears its due to impingement of prostatic urethra. Symptoms are rear before 40 years of age, but quite common after 70 years of age. More than half of men in their sixties and as many as 90% in their seventies and eighties have some symptoms of BPH as the prostate enlarge tissue layers surrounding it inhibit expansion, inward pressure then constricts the urethra as a result, the bladder wall becomes thicker and irritable contracting even when it contains small amount of urine eventually causes bladder weakness and loses the ability to empty itself trapping urine inside, over 50% of men will have some problem with passing urine by the time they reach 60 years of age (Kirby and McConnell, 2002). Kirby and McConnell stated that as the prostate continues to grow during most of a man’s life, enlargement doesn’t usually causes problems until later on, BPH, rarely causes symptoms before the age of 40, they went on to say more than half of men their sixties and as many 90% in their seventies and eighties have some symptoms of BPH as the prostate enlarge tissue layers surrounding it inhibit expansion, inward pressure then constricts the urethra as a result, the bladder wall becomes thicker and irritable contracting even when it...
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