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REF: America Moves to the City, 1865–1900
1. Jane Addams - Established Hull House. Condemned war as well as poverty. 2. Florence Kelley - A lifelong battler for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers. Served as a general secretary of the National Consumers League. Led the women of Hull House into a successful lobby in 1893 for an Illinois anti sweatshop law that protected women workers and prohibited child labor. A leader in women's activism and social reform. 3. Mary Baker Eddy - She founded the Church of Christ (Christian Science) in 1879. Preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness. (No need for a doctor, if have enough faith can heal self). Wrote a widely purchased book, "Science and Health with a key to the Scriptures". 4. Charles Darwin - An English Naturalists who wrote the Origin of the Species in 1859. His theory stated that in nature the strongest of a species survive, the weaker animals died out leaving only the stronger of the species. Through this process of natural selection the entire species improved. 5. Booker T. Washington - An ex-slave who saved his money to buy himself an education. He believed that blacks must first gain economic equality before they gain social equality. He was President of the Tuskegee Institute and he was a part of the Atlanta Compromise. He believed that blacks should be taught useful skills so that whites would see them as useful. 6. W. E. B. Du Bois - Helped to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910. 7. William James - a philosopher on Harvard faculty, wrote Principles of Psychology, The Will of to Believe, Varieties of Religious Experience, and Pragmatism; 1842-1910: Helped to express philosophy of the nation. 8. Henry George - He was a journalist-author and an original thinker. he saw poverty at its worst in India and wrote the classic Progress and Poverty. this book in 1879 broke into the best-seller lists. he believed that the pressure of a growing population with a fixed supply of land pushed up property values. 9. Horatio Alger - a popular writer of the Post-Civil War time period. He was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction during his career; the famous "rags to riches" theme. 10. Mark Twain - He was America's most popular author, but also renowned platform lecturer. He lived from 1835 to 1910. Used "romantic" type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the "Gilded Age". The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use. 11. Charlotte Perkins Gilman - A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published "Women and Economics" which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force. 12. Carrie Chapman Catt - She was a leader of the women's suffrage movement. She was not successful in accomplishing her goal, but she did spark a movement that would eventually lead to women's right to vote. 13. Cardinal James Gibbons - popular with Roman Catholics and Protestants, as he preached American unity. 14. Dwight L. Moody - This man, part of the social gospel movement, proclaimed the gospel of kindnessand forgiveness and adapted the old-time religion to the facts of city life and founded an institute in 1889 15. megalopolis - cities in America that began to grow rapidly in the post Civil War decades. In 1860, no city in the US had a million people. By 1890, Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia had passed the million mark. 16. settlement house - a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At these plaves, instruction was given in English and how to get...
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