1 - Policy framework
Regarding laws and regulations on waste processing and water treatment the Vietnamese government has issued decrees which contain the standards and requirements companies have to comply with. Although these standards are at a relatively high level, Vietnam still has to face environmental challenges due to infringement. The reasons for that are mostly not accomplishable claims, a lack of enforcement and a non-sufficient budget.
•Law on Environmental Protection (November 29, 2005)
Chapter VI : ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN URBAN CENTERS AND RESIDENTIAL AREAS Article 50.- Plannings of environmental protection in urban centers and residential areas 2. Planning of environmental protection in urban centers or residential areas shall cover planning on land for construction of environmental protection infrastructure works and the following systems of environmental protection infrastructure works: a/ Concentrated waste water collection and treatment system; rainwater drainage system; solid waste collection, dumping, treatment and recycling system; •Decree No: 29/2011/ND-CP (April 18, 2011): Requiring the residential construction projects have an area of 5 hectares or more have to implementation of environmental impact assessment. In the environmental impact assessment report always have a wastewater treatment plant for residential project.
2 - Domestic wastewater treatment status in Vietnam
As of December 12, 2010, There are six cities across Vietnam (Ha Noi, Ho Chi Minh, Da Nang, Buon Ma Thuot, Da Lat) have centralized wastewater treatment plants, the total amount of centralized wastewater treatment plants are 14 plants. The rate of treated wastewater is about 10% in the big city as Ha Noi City and Ho Chi Minh City. In the middle-level cities as Hue, Ha Long, Viet Tri, Thanh Hoa, Nha Trang are carrying projects for wastewater treatment plant and sanitation....