CD: Career Development
HR: Human Resource
HRD: Human Resource Development
HRM: Human Resource Management
ID: Individual Development
OD: Organizational Development
SHRD: Strategic Human Resource Development
T&D: Training and Development
An organization’s HRs are perhaps its most valuable assets (Swanson & Holton, 2001; Yorks, 2005). As such, HRD should be deemed as an invaluable investment (Swanson & Holton, 2001; Yorks, 2005). Sustaining a competitive advantage via development of staff increases the probability of long-term survival and financial success of the organization (Kuratko, Ireland, & Hornsby, 2001). Carneiro (2001) argues that an organization should have the capacity to exploit its knowledge and learning capabilities, as a competitive strategy. Further Cullen (1999) argues the significance of both individual and organizational learning in order to develop organizational capacities. It can be said that HRD plays a more crucial role than ever before. Ways in which HRD can play a strategic role within an organization are going to be thoroughly analyzed belows.
Several definitions and frameworks of HRD were offered throughout the history. (Vilmante Kumpikaite, Algimantas Sakalas, 2008). According to McClean (2001), Bates (2003), Marquardt and Berger (2003), the HRD must include not only economic development and workplace learning, but it must also be committed to the political, social, environmental, cultural, and spiritual development of people around the world. A single definition for HRD has been suggested by Watkins (1991), which focuses on learning, whilst Swanson (1995) focuses on performance. Up to now, HRD is such a complex field and its significant importance is revealing via its functions, general purposes and roles. (See appendix A). Today’s context for strategic HRD
We are living in a world in which:
|Customers/clients |Having become increasingly segmented and persnickety | |Investors and donors |Increasingly concerned about both financial results and intangibles | |Employees |Increasingly diverse demographic backgrounds with more choices to work | |Competitors |Coming from both traditional large, global players and increasingly smaller innovators. | |Global trends: (Othman Yeop Abdullah, 1992). | |Formidable technological explosion | |Tremendous communication explosion | |Knowledge-based business and economy | |Economic activities will be more global than they are today | |Shorter product life | |Tremendous expansion of the service sector | |Information replaces energy as the main transforming resource | |Most of these trends are outside the control of any one individual or organization and occur in both predictable and unpredictable ways. They | |also affect the role and responsibility for HRD. | |(D. Ulrich...