Essay on Kiwi Fruit

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  • Topic: Fruit, Viticulture, Kiwifruit
  • Pages : 10 (3666 words )
  • Download(s) : 993
  • Published : March 10, 2013
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Kiwi
(Actinidia deliciosa)

Family: Actinidiaceae
Synonyms: Actinidia chinensis
Other names: Chinese gooseberry
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Kiwi is among the very few recent introductions which have surpassed in popularity due to its tremendous commercial potential in the sub Himalayan region of India. A native to central China, it is being grown commercially in New Zealand, Italy, USA, Japan, Australia, France, Chile and Spain. In India, kiwi was first planted in the Lal Bagh Gardens at Bangalore as an ornamental tree. With extensive research and development support its commercial cultivation has been extended to the midhills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Nilgiri hills in India. Climate and soil

Kiwi is a deciduous vine which can withstand wide climatic conditions. However, for high yield quality fruits, it requires 700-800 chilling hours below 7`C to break its rest period in the winter otherwise the bud break may be delayed. It may be damaged by (I) autumn frost on the crop and the non dormant plant from October end to November end, (II) frost at the end of the winter before and during the budburst, and (III) spring frost after budburst. In summer, high temperature (> 35`C) accompanied by high insulation and low humidity may cause scorching of leaves. Sun scald and heat stresses are the main problems in its cultivation in lower areas. In India, kiwi can successfully be grown at 800 -1,500 m above mean sea level. A rainfall of about 150 cm/ year is sufficient. It should be well distributed throughout the growing period. The plant does not withstand strong winds during the growing period because of its vigorous vegetative growth, large leaves and viny habit. Therefore, windy sites should be avoided or windbreaks should be established well before planting. It can be grown on a wide range of soils but deep, rich, well drained sandy loam soils are ideal. A soil pH slightly less than 6.9 results in maximum yield but higher pH up to 7.3 affects adversely because of M n deficiency. Heavy wet soils are not suitable as plants do not tolerate wet feet for long. Varieties

Since kiwi is a dioecious plant, it bears pistillate and staminate flowers separately. Commercially grown important pistillate and staminate cultivars are: Abbott
This is an early flowering and early maturing cultivar. The oblong, medium sized, fruits are covered with dense hairs. They are very sweet in taste with lower ascorbic acid content and medium titratable acidity. Allison

Fruits resemble those of Abbott, except that these are slightly broader in proportion to its length. The petals of its flowers are overlapping and crimped along with margins. It is an early ripening, heavy bearer and sweet in taste. Ascorbic acid and titratable acidity are on the lower side. This variety is most suited for Himachal Pradesh. Bruno

This cultivar requires comparatively less chilling period. The fruits are tapering in shape towards the stem end. They are longest among all the cultivars. The fruits is dark brown having very dense, short and bristly hair, highest in ascorbic acid and titratable acidity. The bearing is very heavy. Hayward

Most popular cultivar or the world, Hayward is comparatively shy bearer with a tendency of biennial bearing. The fruit is broad and flat, being much wider in relation to length. It is superior in flavour with high sugar and ascorbic acid content. It requires comparatively more chilling hours. Monty

It is a late flowering cultivar but fruit maturity is not late. The fruits are oblong, resembling those of Abbot and Allison. Being a highly prolific bearer cultivar, sometimes it needs hand thinning for obtaining good sized fruits. The fruit is somewhat wider towards blossom end with higher acidity and medium sugar content. Tomuri

It is a good pollenizer for Hayward and Monty, the late...
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