Essay on Indian Tax Structure

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Trade & Commerce > Taxation System In India vxv India has a well-developed tax structure with clearly demarcated authority between Central and State Governments and local bodies. Central Government levies taxes on income (except tax on agricultural income, which the State Governments can levy), customs duties, central excise and service tax. Value Added Tax (VAT), (Sales tax in States where VAT is not yet in force), stamp duty, State Excise, land revenue and tax on professions are levied by the State Governments. Local bodies are empowered to levy tax on properties, octroi and for utilities like water supply, drainage etc. In last 10-15 years, Indian taxation system has undergone tremendous reforms. The tax rates have been rationalized and tax laws have been simplified resulting in better compliance, ease of tax payment and better enforcement. The process of rationalization of tax administration is ongoing in India. Since April 01, 2005, most of the State Governments in India have replaced sales tax with VAT. Taxes Levied by Central Government

Direct Taxes • Tax on Corporate Income • Capital Gains Tax • Personal Income Tax • Tax Incentives • Double Taxation Avoidance Treaty Indirect Taxes • Excise Duty • Customs Duty • Service Tax • Securities Transaction Tax Taxes Levied by State Governments and Local Bodies • Sales Tax/VAT • Other Taxes Direct Taxes Taxes on Corporate Income

Companies residents in India are taxed on their worldwide income arising from all sources in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act. Non-resident corporations are essentially taxed on the income earned from a business connection in India or from other Indian sources. A corporation is deemed to be resident in India if it is incorporated in India or if it's control and management is situated entirely in India. Domestic corporations are subject to tax at a basic rate of 35% and a 2.5% surcharge. Foreign corporations have a basic tax rate of 40% and a 2.5% surcharge. In addition, an education cess at the rate of 2% on the tax payable is also charged. Corporates are subject to wealth tax at the rate of 1%, if the net wealth exceeds Rs.1.5 mn ( appox. $ 33333). Domestic corporations have to pay dividend distribution tax at the rate of 12.5%, however, such dividends received are exempt in the hands of recipients. Corporations also have to pay for Minimum Alternative Tax at 7.5% (plus surcharge and education cess) of book profit as tax, if the tax payable as per regular tax provisions is less than 7.5% of its book profits. Following measures were taken in the union budget 2007-08 Surcharge on income tax on all firms and companies with a taxable income of Rs.1 crore or less to be removed.

A five year income tax holiday for two, three or four star hotels and for convention centres with a seating capacity of not less than 3,000; they should be completed and begin operations in National Capital Territory of Delhi or in the adjacent districts of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad or Gautam Budh Nagar during April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2010. Concession under section 35(2AB) to be extended for five more years until March 31, 2012. Tax holiday to undertakings in Jammu & Kashmir to be extended for another five years up to March 31, 2012. Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) to be extended to income in respect of which deduction is claimed under sections 10A and 10B; deduction under section 36(1) (viii) to be restricted to 20% of profits each year. Rate of dividend distribution tax to be raised from 12.5% to 15% on dividends distributed by companies; and to 25% on dividends paid by money market mutual funds and liquid mutual funds to all investors. Expenditure on free samples and on displays to be excluded from the scope of Fringe Benefit Tax (FBT); ESOPs to be brought under FBT. An additional cess of 1% on all taxes to be levied to fund secondary education and higher education and the expansion of capacity by 54% for reservation for socially and educationally...
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