Psychology- Unit 4- Essay question- 20/11/12
1) Outline the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Explain how a shoe manufacturer might use this knowledge to market new trainers (4+8) The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion has two routes of persuasion or attitude change: these are the central route and the peripheral route. The central route entails a message which requires greater thought and evaluation from the audience. Individuals with high motivation and who are more intelligent prefer to use the central route. Individuals who are interested in the topic which is being discussed in the message (and who possess background knowledge) are more likely to prefer and engage with a message which is processed using the central route. The peripheral route involves content which isn’t factual and doesn’t need thought or evaluation. This route often relies on the environmental characteristics of the message such as the attractiveness of the source or the way the message is being presented to the audience. Individuals using this route pay relatively little attention to the persuasive message. The audience is also more likely to be influenced by a message which entails those with high status or likability such as celebrities. This form of persuasion is usually used when an argument is weak. Petty, Cacioppo, and Goldman (1981) asked students to read a message which strongly supported that a new large scale examination should be introduced. All the students would need to pass this examination in order to graduate. Some participants were told the examination might be introduced the following year to provide them with strong motivation to use the central route. The other participants were told there would be no change for 10 years, and thus any changes wouldn’t affect them personally. This was designed to produce low motivation to process the message thoroughly so they would use the peripheral route.
The peripheral route should be used to market...
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