Essay on Animals

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  • Topic: Animal, Cnidaria, Phylum
  • Pages : 8 (2753 words )
  • Download(s) : 453
  • Published : January 22, 2013
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Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. All animals are also heterotrophs, meaning they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance. Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years agoWith a few exceptions, most notably the sponges (Phylum Porifera) and Placozoa, animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues. These include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals. Typically, there is also an internal digestive chamber, with one or two openings.[10] Animals with this sort of organization are called metazoans, or eumetazoans when the former is used for animals in general.[11] All animals have eukaryotic cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins.[12] This may be calcified to form structures like shells, bones, and spicules.[13] During development, it forms a relatively flexible framework[14] upon which cells can move about and be reorganized, making complex structures possible. In contrast, other multicellular organisms, like plants and fungi, have cells held in place by cell walls, and so develop by progressive growth.[10] Also, unique to animal cells are the following intercellular junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes.[15] Reproduction and development

See also: Sexual reproduction#Animals and Asexual reproduction#Examples in animals

A newt lung cell stained with fluorescent dyes undergoing the early anaphase stage of mitosis Nearly all animals undergo some form of sexual reproduction.[16] They have a few specialized reproductive cells, which undergo meiosis to produce smaller, motile spermatozoa or larger, non-motile ova.[17] These fuse to form zygotes, which develop into new individuals.[18] Many animals are also capable of asexual reproduction.[19] This may take place through parthenogenesis, where fertile eggs are produced without mating, budding, or fragmentation.[20] A zygote initially develops into a hollow sphere, called a blastula,[21] which undergoes rearrangement and differentiation. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location and develop into a new sponge.[22] In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement.[23] It first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber, and two separate germ layers — an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm.[24] In most cases, a mesoderm also develops between them.[25] These germ layers then differentiate to form tissues and organs.[26] Food and energy sourcing

Main article: Animal nutrition
All animals are heterotrophs, meaning that they feed directly or indirectly on other living things.[27] They are often further subdivided into groups such as carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, and parasites.[28] Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a heterotroph that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).[29] Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act of predation always results in the death of the prey.[30] The other main category of consumption is detritivory, the consumption of dead organic matter.[31] It can at times be difficult to separate the two feeding behaviours, for example, where parasitic species prey on a host organism and then lay their eggs on it for their offspring to feed on its decaying corpse. Selective pressures imposed on one another has led to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations.[32] Most animals indirectly use the energy of sunlight by eating plants or...
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