• The outer core is in the range of 200 to 300 kilometers (125 to 188 miles) thick and represents about 4% of the mantle-crust mass. This layer is sometimes identified as part of the lower mantle due to its geographical nature. However, studies on seismic discontinuities suggest that this "D" layer might differ chemically rom the lower mantle lying above it.
• Looking at the lower mantle, its chemical omposition includes silicon, magnesium, and oxygen. Most likely, it probably also contains some iron, calcium, and aluminum. This layer is comprised of 72.9% of the antle-crust mass, making the Earth abundant in the chemical elements of silicon, magnesium and oxygen, the layer's primary components.
• 3. Higher up, we encounter the upper mantle. Through excavations in volcanoes, scientists have found that this part of the crust composes of 15.3% of the total mantle-crust mass and is made of crystalline forms of Olivine (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 and pyroxene (Mg,Fe)SiO3. The upper mantle makes up 10.3% of the Earth's mass, extending a depth of 6-250 miles (10-400 kilometers). A relatively large portion when compared to the other interior layers. This layer is not completely made of solid minerals for scientists speculate that the asthenosphere could be partly liquid molten.
• D: The D" layer of Earth is about 3% of Earth's mass, is 125 to 188 miles (200 to 300 kilometers) thick and covers about 4% of the mantle-crust mass. This layer, in terms of whether it is part of the lower mantle or an independent layer is still somewhat unclear. Based on evidence collected from seismic discontinuities, the D" layer might differ in chemical composition from the lower mantle above it.
• The next layer, the Transition region comprises 7.5% of Earth's mass with a depth of 250-406 miles (400-650 kilometers). This layer is also known as the mesosphere and is 11.1% of the mantle-crust. It is made of mainly basaltic magmas with amounts of calcium, aluminum and garnet (an...
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