Essay Exam #2 West of the World
Fall 2011 – EUH1000- Western Civil Thru 1589 - 35290|
1. Discuss the Lay Investiture struggle and give its effects. What was really at stake? The Lay Investiture struggle was between the people of the Church and the rulers of Europe. The rulers wanted to have power over the church which would require the church officials to become dependent upon the government. Not only would the pope and the other officials of the church not have their independence in the church but also the land and religious offices would be at stake. The hunger for more power began with Otto I, who demanded that the pope crown him as Holy Roman Empire’s emperor. Otto I’s crown gained him the direct connection to the Carolingian Empire through his control of the old Middle Kingdom. (Bih, Es) Although, the German Kingdom kept their imperial rights so an Emperor basically was not present during Otto’s reign. Otto I was finally crowned as Emperor in 962 AD, which legitimized his rule. However, he lost a lot of support from the local bishops and abbots so Otto appointed new bishops and abbots that would support him. Pope John joined forces with the Italians and opposed Otto, who responded by appointing a new pope to take John’s place. The conflict actually stems back to Pope Nicholas who issued a decree on Papal elections. The decree was to strengthen the power of the popes. Investiture was the marking of Imperial might coming to an end of the time period. The church needed the Emperor, but needed to also be able to function independently. http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=investiture_contest, http://www.suu.edu/faculty/bostick/Topics%209-10%20Cluny-Towns-Education%201100.htm, http://history-world.org/midchurchhigh.htm,
http://www.loyno.edu/~MidAges/fharris.html, http://www.usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/invest.htm 2. In what ways did life improve during the High Middle Ages? Consider...