Organisational Behaviour Assignment
Why do some groups function effectively whilst others are
dysfunctional? In your answer, draw on theories and concepts from across the module, and illustrate your views with examples from organisation(s) you are familiar with or have researched.
The use of groups within organisations has increased on a global scale in recent years.
This fact alone suggests that a group demographic confers many tangible benefits to an organisation. A ‘group’ in this instance is a set of employees brought together with the aim that their individual skills will lead to higher productivity when combined, than if they were each working as a separate entity. The employees may have similar skills in a specific field of the company’s activity, for example the group of Research and Development employees brought together for the focus groups involved in the development of the new Windows OS Vista. Groups may also have contrasting skills that enable them to cooperate towards a common goal, for example; a group of interdisciplinary employees may be assembled to perform a task that requires multi-departmental cooperation but cannot facilitate indirect communication between departments i.e. they don’t have to time to communicate indirectly. For example when the Environmental Protection Agency is commissioned to perform a survey; it assembles a group of geologists, hydrologists, ecologists etc to go and assess the site. The dynamics and psychology of groups has been well studied and documented especially by Tuckman and Gersick whom Oxbridge Essays www.oxbridgeessays.com we will focus upon in due course. The organisation of the staff within a company can have a massive impact upon how the company functions and on its productivity, so it is important for businesses to examine and review their organisational behaviour. Why does the organisation of individuals into goal orientated groups yield such rewards and what are the possible downsides to this organisation strategy? These are the questions this essay intends to address.
Factors and Processes which Influence Group Effectiveness and Dysfunction An Effective Group
• Task orientation – an effective group is more likely to stay focused on its aims and targets than any one individual alone and will be much more focused than a dysfunctional group. This could be achieved through organisation of goals and targets for the group as they progress through a task.
• Motivation through hierarchical flattening – the introduction of equality by the integration of management within the group structure. The breakdown of barriers between support staff and management can lead to a more relaxed working environment. Also management within the group can maintain the focus and orientation of the group. Groups act as a form of social control – norms and protocols are learned more quickly by new employees if they have to associate closely with Oxbridge Essays www.oxbridgeessays.com others. An effective group will be trained to introduce a new member to the ethos of the organisation quickly so the new member wastes no time ‘settling in’
• Group norms can serve to facilitate goal achievement – if each group member knows how he/she is to behave and what is expected of them, then greater productivity is sure to ensue
• If appropriate rewards are strategically offered to the highest performing group then competition will increase and therefore overall productivity will increase.
• In an effective group the aims and targets are made clear to all members, no one is confused or left without a task, nor are tasks duplicated.
• Based upon Social Identity Theory and the natural desire to maintain positive self concept; people like to identify with high status groups and subsequently will work hard to stay associated with them. • The stereotyping of out-group factors can...