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Jallianwala Bagh massacre

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Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Jallianwala Bagh massacre

Narrow passage to Jallianwala Bagh Garden through which the shooting was conducted.

Location of Amritsar in India Location Coordinates Date Target Attack type Weapon(s) Death(s) Injured Perpetrator(s) Amritsar, India 31°37′14″N 74°52′49″E April 13, 1919 5:30 pm (UTC+5:30) Hindu, Muslim and Sikh religious and political gathering Shooting, mass murder, massacre Rifles 379-1500 1100-1500 British Indian Army unit under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer

Number of participant(s) 50

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre (Punjabi: ਜਲ੍ਹਿਆਂਵਾਲਾ ਬਾਗ਼ ਹਤਿਆਕਾਂਡ, Hindi: जलियांवाला बाग़ हत्याकांड, Urdu: ‫ﺟﻠﻴﺎﻧﻮﺍﻟﮧ ﺑﺎﻍ‬ ‫ ﻗﺘﻞِ ﻋﺎﻡ‬Jallianwala Bāġa Hatyākāṇḍ), also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place in the Jallianwala Bagh public garden in the northern Indian city of Amritsar, and was ordered by Brigadier-General Reginald E.H. Dyer. On Sunday April 13, 1919, which happened to be 'Baisakhi', one of Punjab's largest religious festivals, fifty British Indian Army soldiers, commanded by Dyer, began shooting at an unarmed gathering of men, women, and children without warning. Dyer marched his fifty riflemen to a raised bank and ordered them to kneel and fire.[1] Dyer ordered soldiers to reload their rifles several times and they were ordered to shoot to kill.[2] Official Government of India sources estimated the fatalities at 379, with 1,100 wounded.[3] Civil Surgeon Dr Williams DeeMeddy indicated that there were 1,526 casualties.[4] However, the casualty number quoted by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500, with roughly 1,000 killed.[5]

Jallianwala Bagh massacre

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Background
India during World War I
World War I began with loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from mainstream politicians of India, contrary to initial British fears of a revolt while they were committed militarily to a European war. British India contributed massively to the British war effort by providing men and resources. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian administration and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. However, Bengal and Punjab remained sources of anticolonial activities. Revolutionary attacks in Bengal, associated increasingly with disturbances in Punjab, were significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration.[6] [7] From the beginning of the war, the expatriate Indian population (notably in the United States, Canada, and Germany) attempted to initiate insurrections in India. Managed by the Berlin Committee and the Ghadar Party, Irish republicans, Germans, and Turks helped foment a widespread conspiracy that has since come to be termed the Hindu-German conspiracy.[8] [9] [10] This conspiracy also attempted to rally Afghanistan against British India.[11] A number of failed attempts were made at mutiny, of which the February mutiny plan and the Singapore mutiny are the most notable. This movement was suppressed by means of a massive international counterintelligence operation and strict political acts (including the draconian Defence of India act 1915) that lasted nearly ten years.[12] [13]

After the war
In the aftermath of World War I, high casualty rates, increasing inflation compounded by heavy taxation, a widespread influenza epidemic, and the disruption of trade during the war escalated human suffering in India. The costs of the protracted war in both money and manpower were great. In India, long the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire, Indians were restless for independence. More than 43,000 Indian soldiers had died fighting for Britain. Indian soldiers smuggled arms into India to fight British rule. The pre-war Indian nationalist sentiment revived as moderate and extremist groups of the Indian National Congress ended their differences in order to unify. In...
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