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College of Nursing

End Stage Renal Disease 20 to Diabetic Nephropathy

Presented by:

Balgos, Rachelle Ann
Dayto, April
Feranil, Daniel
Fulinara, Janice
Fuentes, Maila Joy
Garrido, John Paolo
Mendoza, Kenneth Robert
Nazareno, Jhon Ryan
Olfindo, Kristine Joy
Sombilon, Jorgette Kim

***

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement in NURS 60 for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Nursing
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.Demographic Data4
II.Chief Complaints4
III.History of Present Illness4
IV.Past Medical History5
V.Developmental History6
VI.Heredo-familial History15
VII.Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns16
VIII.Physical Examination22
IX.Diagnostic Test43
X.Anatomy and Physiology75
XI.Pathophysiology81
XII.Case Management82
XIII.Nursing Care Plan107


ABSTRACT
“"The divine is not something high above us. It is in heaven, it is in earth, it is inside us..." - Morihei Ueshiba
We, group 2 of Level III section 2, have chosen this case to gain more knowledge about the mechanism of End Stage Renal Disease and its process. Our patient C.C is a 51 -year old male who was diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus seventeen years ago and now has End Stage Renal Disease due to Diabetic Nephropathy. His disease leads to fluid accumulation to his lungs and edema on his extremities. Our group chose the case because it is also our first time to handle a case related to two major organ and system of the body, which are the kidney and the endocrine system. We also want to improve our knowledge and skills in dealing with individuals who have diabetes mellitus and End Stage Renal Disease, especially in preventing the occurrence of its complications. Renal failure refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that result in loss of normal kidney function. There are two different types of renal failure - acute and chronic. Acute renal failure has an abrupt onset and is potentially reversible. Chronic failure progresses slowly over at least three months and can lead to permanent renal failure. Moreover, End-stage Renal Disease is when the kidneys permanently fail to function. It may also be brought about through having a history of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Historically, diabetes was considered a disease confined to developed countries and affluent people. However, recent estimates suggest that the prevalence of diabetes is rising globally, particularly in developing countries. Diabetes mellitus has become an important health concern in the South Asian region with an estimated increase in the prevalence of diabetes of over 151% between 2000 and 2030. The South-Asian population in particular is known to have an increased predisposition for the disease. Ethnic differences and differential environmental exposure to risk factors in the different populations are other proposed mechanisms. Nephropathy means kidney disease or damage. Diabetic nephropathy is damage to your kidneys caused by diabetes. It is one of the complications of diabetes. In severe cases it can lead to kidney failure. High blood sugar secondary to diabetes can destroy the tiny blood vessels of the kidney, which function to filter out excess water and waste. Over time, the kidney isn't able to do its job as well. Later it may stop working completely, thus, causing kidney failure. In people with diabetes, the nephrons thicken and slowly become scarred over time. •The kidneys begin to leak and protein (albumin) passes into the urine. •This damage can happen years before any symptoms begin.

The exact cause is unknown. However, kidney damage is more likely if there is poor control of diabetes and high blood pressure. Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of sickness and death in people with diabetes. It can lead to the need for dialysis or a kidney...
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