Rather than focusing on biological influences of personality, Erikson emphasized societal factors.
- Society shapes the development of the ego or self. (Each society has unique qualities that influence personality.)
- Ego development continues throughout life (unlike what Freud believed).
- "Crisis" exists at each developmental stage, according to a maturational timetable, and must be resolved for healthy ego development.
The Eight Psychosocial Stages of Development:
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 12-18 months)
Through experience with parents, the infant develops a sense of whether the world is good and safe.
Virtues: hope and trust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (12-18 months to 3 years)
The child develops a balance of independence over doubt and shame.
Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years)
Develops initiative when trying new things and is not overwhelmed by failure.
Industry vs. Inferiority (6 years to puberty)
Must learn skills of the culture or face feelings of incompetence
Identity vs. Identity Confusion (puberty to young adulthood)
Adolescent must determine own sense of self or experience confusion about roles.
Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood)
Person seeks to make commitments to others; if unsuccessful, may suffer from isolation and self-absorption.
Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood)
Mature adult is concerned with establishing and guiding the next generation, or feels personal impoverishment.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)
Elderly person achieves acceptance of own life, allowing acceptance of death, or else despairs over inability to relive life.
Strengths of Erikson's Theory
- emphasis is on...