Erikson Outline

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Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory - modified view of Freud's theories, Erik Erikson (1902-1994)

Rather than focusing on biological influences of personality, Erikson emphasized societal factors.

- Society shapes the development of the ego or self. (Each society has unique qualities that influence personality.)

- Ego development continues throughout life (unlike what Freud believed).

- "Crisis" exists at each developmental stage, according to a maturational timetable, and must be resolved for healthy ego development.

The Eight Psychosocial Stages of Development:

Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 12-18 months)

Through experience with parents, the infant develops a sense of whether the world is good and safe.

Virtues: hope and trust

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (12-18 months to 3 years)

The child develops a balance of independence over doubt and shame.

Virtues: will

Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years)

Develops initiative when trying new things and is not overwhelmed by failure.

Virtue: purpose

Industry vs. Inferiority (6 years to puberty)

Must learn skills of the culture or face feelings of incompetence

Virtue: skill

Identity vs. Identity Confusion (puberty to young adulthood)

Adolescent must determine own sense of self or experience confusion about roles.

Virtue: fidelity

Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood)

Person seeks to make commitments to others; if unsuccessful, may suffer from isolation and self-absorption.

Virtue: love

Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood)

Mature adult is concerned with establishing and guiding the next generation, or feels personal impoverishment.

Virtue: care

Ego Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)

Elderly person achieves acceptance of own life, allowing acceptance of death, or else despairs over inability to relive life.

Virtue: wisdom

Strengths of Erikson's Theory

- emphasis is on...
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