ECE335: Childrens Literature (BDI1245A)
Instructor: Donna Marvel
December 3, 2012
Erik Erikson was a German-born American from 1902-1994. Erik was known for his psychosocial theory of emotional development of human beings. "Erik Erikson stages of development is a model for the stages of thinking and learning for children, you will notice in each stage there are opportunities for positive ego development as well as deficits in one's character, not only before a child reaches his 20's, but throughout life."(Support4changes.com) This theory looks at the impact of parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. Erikson's believes that each child passes through a series of eight interrelated stages over their entire life cycle. The first four stages focus on the childhood years. "He felt the course of development is determined by the interaction of the body, mind, and cultural influences. His developmental stages were based on his Philosophy that: 1.) the world gets bigger as we go along and 2.) Failure is correlative." (support4change.com) "Erikson hypothesized that the personality the ways a human fetus develops."(www.vtaide.com) The stages are designed for children to pass through each stage as they conquer the one first stage and the second stage and so forth. The stages are a way for a child to grow and develop.
Infancy is the first stage of the psychosocial development, happens from birth to 18 months. Trust vs. Mistrust is the first stage that a child with go through. Infants are helpless creatures that dependent on others for their needs to be met. This stage is learning what they can trust in their environment. Infants need to trust the people that are caring for their needs. When they are hungry they will be feed, when they are wet or dirty they will be changed, and when they are tired they will be put be to bed. "If an infant's physical and emotional needs are met in a consistent and caring way, he learns that his mother or caregiver can be counted on and he develops an attitude of trust in people. If his needs are not met, an infant may become fearful and learns not to trust the people around him."(www.vtaide.com) This does not mean that every time your baby cries you need to pick him up or give him everything he wants. It means that you are consistency of meeting their needs and how you are caring for them. There is a bond that is form between a child and parent or caregiver that later helps communication develops. "Over-yielding to a child's demands can produce a spoiled and selfish child who finds it hard to conform to social expectations because he issued to having his own ways."(www.vtaide.com) "The positive resolution of this stage is we will learn to trust that life is basically okay and have basic confidence in the failure. The negative resolution of this stage we will fail to experience trust and are constantly frustrated because our needs are not met, we may end up with a deep-seated feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust of the world in general."(www.support4change.com) Erikson's second stage Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. This stage is during the toddler years 18 months to 3 years. Toddlers are very curious creatures in their process of learning they learn that they are their own creatures and they have their own abilities, wishes, and desires of their very own. During the toddler years they learn to be independent and they want to do everything by themselves. They learn how to make choices for their life. Toddlers grow at a fast rate during this age and don’t stay in one size very long. With toddlers bodies growing so fast their bodies develop as well and they learn to walk, run, balance, feed themselves, climb, jump, and many more skills that allow children explore the world around them. "Toddlers have many opportunities to build self-esteem and gain more control over their bodies and acquire...