While reading the textbook, Erik Erikson’s psychological theories of development seemed interesting and stood out to us. Erik Erikson (1902-1994) was a psychosocial theorist that was a follower of Sigmond Freud (Berger, 2012). He acknowledged the significance of the unconscious mind and early childhood, as well as, furthered his studies and developed his own ideas. In the following paragraphs, we will describe Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development.
The first stage that Erikson discussed was from the time period of birth to one year of age. This stage is known as the Trust vs. Mistrust. In this stage, babies learn to trust others or develop mistrust due to the way they are cared for (Berger, 2012). Although they are young, children have the capability to determine the quality of the care they receive. If the parent is incapable of meeting the child’s basic needs and nourishment, the child will develop mistrust and later on in life could be affected by not having a close relationship with the parent. For example, our friend that has recently had a baby has been reading up on how to give her child the best care possible. This will help her child develop a sense of trust.
The second stage of development is in the time period of one to three years old. This is known as the Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt stage. During this stage, children can become self- sufficient or fall behind in many skills. This will depend on whether or not the children doubt their own abilities or develop personal control (Cherry, 2010). As a parent, it is important to encourage the child to do little things on their own, such as feeding themselves (Berger, 2012). Activities in which a child can develop a sense of self- sufficiency are toilet training, feeding, walking, exploring, talking, etc.
The third stage of development is three to six years of age. This stage is known as the Initiative vs. Guilt stage. The book describes this stage as...