In 1978, Associated Electronic Services Ltd (AES), a Perth-based engineering company, began developing an automated fare collection (AFC) system. In 1984 AES won a contract for an AFC system in Toronto, Canada. That same year Energy Research Group (ERG) was listed on the stock exchange. ERG was a venture capital-backed company, researching various technologies including an electronic sign board and a manufacturing process for surfboards. In 1987, ERG acquired a controlling interest in AES. The first project the new ERG won was in Darwin, resulting in the world's first use of smart cards for passengers by a public transit organisation. In 1988 ERG acquired the balance of AES. In 1989, ERG acquired Radio lab, which specialised in pagers and base stations, to become ERG's telecommunications and manufacturing division. ERG also acquired a 70% interest in Pro-data Electronics, Belgium. In 1997 ERG formed an alliance with Motorola,] primarily for their smartcard technology, and won substantial contracts in Berlin, Rome, San Francisco and Singapore. An alliance with American Express was formed. E-card was established. 2008 saw the New South Wales government cancel the T-card project, with law suits in both directions (now resolved). In 2009, Vix acquired the assets of the former ERG Group, when ERG restructured and changed its name to Videlli Limited. In 2010, Vix acquired ACIS, a leading UK-based supplier of ITS and PIDS solutions. In 2011, Vix launched a rebranding of the company, integrating all of its business under one brand "Vix".
The major use for the smart cards would continue to be for mobile telephone, access control, fare collection and banking applications. Toward the development of multi-functional smart cards that carried more than one application such as parking card that is automatically reloaded from...