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Structural Diagram- page 72



- Epinephrine has several uses, including increasing ventilation of lungs through relief of bronchodilation, increasing cardiac output, increasing systolic blood pressure, dilating blood vessels involved in crisis response

- Clinically, epinephrine plays a lifesaving role in countering the effects of anaphylactic shock. It relaxes smooth muscle, though at different receptors.

Physical Properties:

- high boiling points and melting points compared to hydrocarbons of similar size

-water soluble as it is small in size

- the above characteristics can be explained by two types of polar bonds in all amines , the N—C bons and any N—H bonds. Due to these bonds, the intermolecular forces of attraction is increased which results in higher temperatures to change the state of amines.

- Aliphatic amines are less dense than water, having densities in the range 0.63 to 0.74 gram per cubic cm; aromatic amines are typically slightly heavier than water (e.g., the density of aniline is 1.02 grams per cubic cm).

Chemical Properties:

-Epinephrine is a monoamine derived from the amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Epinephrine is synthesized in several steps from either phenylalanine or tyrosine (both amino acids). Two adjacent hydroxyl groups are placed on the aromatic ring, leading to the ring structure called catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene)


-polar compound with a catechol (a dihydroxybenzene) and an amine



The optimum time to administer the EpiPen® is within 15 minutes; however allergic reactions can progress much quicker. There is no harm done if the shot is given and it wasn’t necessary. The shock can return after an initial dose of epinephrine – called a biphasic reaction. Periodically check to make sure the solution in the EpiPen® is not brown in colour. Replace if it is discoloured or contains a precipitate. If the product is submerged in...
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