Epidemiology

Topics: Tuberculosis, Epidemiology, Infectious disease Pages: 6 (1286 words) Published: June 21, 2015


Epidemiology Paper
Roshanda Dixon
Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V
March 27, 2015

Abstract
According to the reading epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of the health related stated or events (WHO, 2013). The purpose of this study is to gain control of the disease and other major health issues. Tuberculosis is one of the most largest nationwide diseases that are spread throughout the continent. The description of the disease along with how it’s spread and the treatable facts will be listed. The roles of nursing are very important to know when dealing with a nationwide disease. Proper resources will also be applied in helping in how to reduce the diseases from spreading. Tuberculosis

TB is considered one the most fatal diseases in the nation. It is a disease that is caused by microorganisms that are spread from one person to another via air. The lungs will contract this disease and according to studies the disease stays in the air for several hours. TB can affect other body parts as well such as the brain, the kidneys and spine. Latent TB is when others breathe in the disease through the air. Latent TB is when you have the disease in your body but it is not active. These patients do not have a contagious disease but they can obtain the active disease in the future. Active TB multiplies in the body killing tissues in the body (CDC, 2011). Signs and symptoms of TB in your lungs can display coughing, having chest pains, signs of week and anorexia, weight loss and even night sweats. TB in other areas of the body will only be determining from a doctor. Latent TB can be detected only two ways a TB test and or a blood test. The test determines how the body immune system reacts to the germs that cause the TB (CDC, 2012). An X –Ray can also determine the TB and how damaging to the lungs it’s causing to the lungs. TB is curable and treatable but they do have MDR-TB which is resistant to two of the first line drugs isonniazid and rifampin. Drug resistance can occur when drugs are being mistreated or being misused (CDC, 2012). CDC explained that being compliant with your treatment of medications while having this disease will help the process from getting worse. According to CDC it can take up to six months to a year to kill all the TB germs. The disease can easily be prevented. When travelling try to avoid crowded enclosed areas such as hospitals, jails, homeless shelter and such when TB is known to be around. While working in healthcare it is important to know the facility protocol to prevent exposure to TB. Make sure you always have personal respiratory protective devices. Specific Population

According to Center of Disease Control the African American community has been effective with TB and it’s still growing in the U.S. In 2011 TB was reported in 1533 non Hispanics blacks in the United States. The Center of Disease Control is working on different solutions to educate the black communities. Another factor includes children that are affected which any child under 15 is considered to have pediatric tuberculosis. The largest numbers in children are seen in children that are less than 5 and older than 10 years of age (CDC, 2012). TB also affects the correctional facilities about 4-6% is reported in the United States. There are risk factors that increases the risk which include, physical structure being overly crowded along with language barriers and the high rates of HIV can also play an important role when in correctional facilities. To improve these matters such as follow up screenings, along with appropriate precautions for airborne infections and contact the proper people when TB has been identified. The estimated number of persons supervised by adult correctional systems by correctional systems by correctional status 200 and 2005-2010 (CDC, 2013). The homeless population is another area that can be affected as well. According to CDC 1% of the...
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